The indefinite past tense is formed by adding to the verb stem the suffix -GAN,
plus the pronominal type of personal suffixes.
With the verb kelmoq, 'to come':
If the verb stem ends with -k or -g, a phonetic assimilation rule changes the suffix into -KAN
(and if the verb stems ends with -g, this last consonant becomes -k).
|kelganman||I have come|
|kelgansan||You have come|
|kelgan||He/she/it has come|
|kelganmiz||We have come|
|kelgansiz||You have come|
|kelganlar / kelgan||They have come|
In the same way, if the verb stem ends with -q or -g', the suffix is changed into -QAN
(and if the verb stems ends with -g', this last consonant becomes -q).
For instance, with the verb tegmoq, 'to touch':
The negative is formed by adding to the verb stem the suffix -MA, plus the suffix -GAN and then the personal suffix.
|tekkanman||I have touched|
|tekkansan||You have touched|
|tekkan||He/she/it has touched|
|tekkanmiz||We have touched|
|tekkansiz||You have touched|
|tekkanlar / tekkan||They have touched|
The negative may also be formed using the verb stem plus the suffix -GAN (which is the past participle),
followed by the negative copula emas and the personal suffix.
|kelmaganman||I haven't come|
|kelmagansan||You haven't come|
|kelmagan||He/she/it hasn't come|
|kelmaganmiz||We haven't come|
|kelmagansiz||You haven't come|
|kelmaganlar / kelmagan||They haven't come|
Another and more emphatic negative form is using the past participle, -GAN plus the possessive personal
suffixes, followed by the negative word yo'q.
|kelgan emasman||I haven't come|
|kelgan emassan||You haven't come|
|kelgan emas||He/she/it hasn't come|
|kelgan emasmiz||We haven't come|
|kelgan emassiz||You haven't come|
|kelgan emaslar / emas||They haven't come|
That form is more emphatic, as is its positive counterpart, with bor.
|kelganim yo'q||I haven't come|
|kelganing yo'q||You haven't come|
|kelgani yo'q||He/she/it hasn't come|
|kelganmiz yo'q||We haven't come|
|kelganingiz yo'q||You haven't come|
|kelganlari yo'q||They haven't come|