Actionality



In addition to the aspectual values encoded in the basic tense/aspect system (perfective/imperfective, focal/non-focal), there are many constructions which express actionality, i.e. the way in which the verb is structured in relation to time, and whether the state, event or action is lasting, repeated, achieved, etc.
As regards actionality, any verb has an intrinsic value with respect to the following characteristics:
- being static / dynamic,
- having duration / being punctual,
- involving change, leading to a terminal point (telic) / without change, nor terminal point (atelic).

It is then possible to distinguish between the following states of affair - actionality types:
- situation - state: static, (and having duration, being atelic),
- action - activity: dynamic, having duration, atelic,
- process - accomplishment: dynamic, having duration, telic,
- event - achievement: dynamic, punctual, telic,
- event - semelfactive: dynamic, punctual, atelic.

Like other turkic languages, Uzbek uses constructions made up of a coverb (gerund in -IB or -A) of the lexical verb, plus a second auxiliary verb which conveys modifications of the intrinsic actional value of the lexical verb.
The auxiliary verb carries the time/aspect suffixes, and may also in turn participate in modality constructions.

We present in this first page on actionality the constructions modifying activities and accomplishments.
- accomplishments are dynamic states of affair, having duration and leading to a change, with a terminal point.
- activities are dynamic states of affair, having duration but not leading to a terminal change.
For both actionalities, we display on a background line the sequence of phases (changes of qualitative state, on the vertical axis), unfolding over time (on the horizontal axis) and making up the aspectual contour of the lexical verb.
The particular phases profiled by the modifying constructions are then depicted by the thin arrows or lines on top of the aspectual contour.


To see the meanings of these terms, you can also hover the mouse over the terms written in italic blue.
Click on the constructions to get explanations and examples of their usages.
In the constructions referred to on the map, the lexical verb on which the modality is applied appears on the left side of the hyphen.



actionality1

In this second page on actionality we present the constructions modifying achievements and semelfactive events, as well as miscellaneous actionality constructions.
- achievements are dynamic states of affair, being punctual, without much duration and leading to a change, with a terminal point.
- semelfactive events are dynamic states of affair, being punctual, without much duration and not leading to a terminal change.
The constructions relative to achievements may involve in addition to the change of state a causation brought by a single semelfactive event; the causative construction is depicted here by the curve arrows coming from the event and going to the change of state.
The miscellaneous constructions make use of the same basic profiles for activities, accomplishments and achievements, but with special views, exemplified here construction by construction.


To see the meanings of these terms, you can also hover the mouse over the terms written in italic blue.
Click on the constructions to get explanations and examples of their usages.
In the constructions referred to on the map, the lexical verb on which the modality is applied appears on the left side of the hyphen.



actionality2

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