In counterfactual conditional, the condition clause expresses a condition that is known to be false, or at least very unlikely.
A distinction must be made between a present-future counterfactual conditional, used to refer to a current or future state or event
that is known to be false or improbable, and a past counterfactual conditional, used to refer to contrary-to-fact past events.
Both of these forms use the imperfect (the form in "-AR EDI") as a verbal form for the result clause.
The present-future counterfactual conditional refers to a current or future state or event that is known to be false or unlikely.
The present-future counterfactual conditional makes use of the verbal construction "verbal form-SA", in the conditional clause,
and of the imperfect ("-AR EDI") in the result clause. A composite form using the past participle and the verb bo'l- in the imperfect might also be used.
With the simple imperfect in the result clause:
Agar men matematik bo'lsam, bu teoremani yechar edim.
If I were a mathematician I could solve this theorem.
Agar u hozir shu yerga kelsa, men unga hamma narsani aytar edim.
I should tell him everything if he came here now.
Agar u universitetga kelasi yili kirsa, u ingliz tilini o'rgana olar edi.
If she entered the University next year she could learn English.
Choy bersangiz, damlar edim.
I you gave me tea, I would infuse it.
A construction in "-GAN BO'LAR EDI" may also be used:
Agar 100 million dollar yutib olsangiz nima qilgan bo'lar edingiz?
If you got 100 million dollar, what would you do?
The past counterfactual conditional refers to contrary-to-fact past events.
The present-future counterfactual conditional makes use of various forms in the conditional clause, with roughly the same meanings.
The same forms as for the past counterfactual, the imperfect and composite imperfect are used in the result clause.
A first form makes use of the construction "-GAN BO'LSA" in the condition clause:
Bu xabarni eshitgan bo'lsa, kelar edi.
If he had heard that news, he would have come.
E'tibor qilgan bo'lsang, shoshilmayapman.
If you had paid more attention, I would not be in a hurry.
A second form makes use in the conditional clause of the past participle of the main verb, possibly suffixed by the pronominal possessive suffix,
and at the locative case, followed by the past form of the stative (edi):
Agar men uni kecha ko'rganimda edi, u menga u narsa haqida gapirib bergan bo'lar edi.
If I had seen him yesterday he would have told me about it.
Agar bilganimda edi, kelmagan bol'ar edim.
Should I had known, I would not have come.
U ehtiyotkorroq bo'lganida edi!
Had he been more prudent!
Agar aloqamiz ilgariroq boshlanganda edi, hozir hamkorlikda ishlar edik.
If our relationship had started earlier, we would have worked together.
A third form makes use of the past conditional "-SA EDI" in the condition clause:
Buni ko'rsangiz edi, unutmas edingiz.
If you had seen it, you wouldn't have forgotten it.
Salim biznikiga kelsa edi, biz birga borgan bo'lur edik.
If Salim had come to our place, we would have gone together.
Agar komandirlarning hammasi shunday bo'lsa edi, ish boshqacha tus olardi.
If everybody had been that way in the team, things would have turned out differently.
Koshki bilsam edi!
If only I had known!