The epistemic modality qualifies the knowledge the speaker has about the possibility, probability or certainty
of the proposition expressed by his/her utterance.
The epistemic modality system comes into three forms:
- the non-marked form simply asserts that the fact is reasonably certain (declarative).
To insist more on the certainty of the fact, one must use adverbials like aniq with the declarative.
The two other forms state that the proposition expressed is:
- probable, the fact will likely occur, the knowledge of it being grounded on previous knowledge or on deduction (assumptive modality),
- possible, but with some uncertainty, and somewhat speculative (presumptive modality).
Some other relatively marginal modalities are to be found for the future tense (obligatory and definite future).
To see the meanings of these terms, you can also hover the mouse over the terms written in italic blue.
Click on the name of any tense to get its usages and examples of it.
Click on the Uzbek form of the tense to get its complete conjugation.