The basic tense/aspect system is expanded in order to encode evidentiality,
which focuses on the nature of the source of knowledge giving rise to the proposition uttered by the speaker.
The evidentiality system comes into three forms:
- the non-marked form does not specify the source of knowledge, but usually assumes the source is first-hand (directive).
The two other forms state that the source of knowledge is based on and derived from elements linked to the state or event (indirective).
Those elements might be:
- evidence linked to the fact, such as perception, deduction or report from a trusted source (inferential),
- mentions by others on that fact (reportative or quotative/hear-say).
That knowledge is then more than often presented as new information for the speaker himself, especially in the inferential mode,
while the reportative mode implies also some doubt about the validity of the information, since it has not been witnessed or checked,
particularly when the people mentioning the fact are not specified.
To see the meanings of these terms, you can also hover the mouse over the terms written in italic blue.
Click on the name of any tense to get its usages and examples of it.
Click on the Uzbek form of the tense to get its complete conjugation.