in Uzbek: hozirgi zamon davom fe'li
also called: present continuous tense; progressive present.
Focal present expresses a state, event or action which is taking place at the same time it is being reported.
It corresponds to the English present progressive and simultaneous present.
The duration of the event is short enough to be felt as contained in the period of time of current relevance to the speaker.
It is not very frequently used in the written language.
Less used tenses with similar meanings are
Progressive present, in a continuous mode:
Nima qilyapsiz, kitob o'qiyapsizmi?
Yo'q, o'qimayapman, faqat rasmlarini ko'ryapman.
What are you doing? Are you reading the book?
No, I am not reading it, I am just looking at the pictures.
Sizga nima bo'ldi? Tishingiz og'riyaptimi?
What happened to you? Do you have a toothache?
Do you understand me?
Note: In this meaning of continuity of the action in the present, the focal present overlaps with the continuous present
formed with the past gerund (-B/-IB) followed by the auxiliary verbs (yot-/tur-/yur-/o'tir-) in the indirective past.
The latter can only express that the action is continuous, uninterrupted, at present time.
Its use is far more restricted than the focal present. Compare:
Xat yozyapti / yozib turibdi.
He is writing a letter. (writing process may be interrupted later / is exclusive to other processes)
The focal present might take a more generic value, in a discontinuous mode:
Men o'zbek tilini o'rganyapman.
I'm learning Uzbek. (not necessarily just now)
Har yili O'zbekistonda aholi soni oshyapti.
The population in Uzbekistan is increasing each year.
Sometimes, the same event or action in the same context might be construed alternatively as happening
specifically inside the scope of current focal temporal perception (focal present) or inside a broader period
of time (present-future):
Men institutda ishlayman / ishlayapman.
I work / am working at the institute.
But an additional distinction is that present-future may add a nuance of decision and definitiveness:
Men yigirma minutdan beri avtobus kutyapman. Avtobus kelmayapti.
Mana avtobus kelyapti. Bu avtobusda odam ko'p-ku. Boshqa avtobusni kutamizmi?
I have been waiting for the bus for twenty minutes. The bus is not coming.
Here it comes. Too much people inside. Will we wait for another bus?
The state or event might also happen in the near future; that insists then on the event's proximity in time,
or on its continuous aspect:
Bugun kechki poyezda Toshkentga jo'nab ketyapman.
Today, I'm taking the evening train to go to Tashkent.
Ertaga og'limga sunnat to'yi qilyapmiz.
Tomorrow, we will have my son's circumcision party.
An event in the past might be expressed with the present tense (history past), to render the effect of bringing
the past alive; standard use would be focal past:
Tashqariga qarasam, ikki bola urishyapti.
When I looked outside, two kids were fighting.
The use of bo'l- in its focal present form as a predicate for the nominal statives
(names, adjectives, bor, yo'q, kerak, mumkin, etc.)
indicates that there is a change of state ('becoming') currently going on:
Havo yomon bo'lyapti.
Weather is getting bad.