Indirective past

in Uzbek: o'tgan zamon hikoya fe'li
also called: narrative past, narrative/indirective past, past tense of inference or hearsay.

The indirective past is used for events or actions completed in the past, having occurred inside the period of time of current relevance to the speaker, usually the recent past, but sometimes in an objectively more remote past, and expresses that the knowledge of the fact is inferred from evidence, be it sensorial perception, logical deduction or direct report from a trusted source. That knowledge is most often presented as new information, sometimes unexpected, for the speaker himself.

● The knowledge might be inferred from sensorial perception:

Bu ko'ylak sizga juda yarashibdi!
This shirt looks perfect on you!

● The knowledge might be inferred from logical deduction:

Og'zingizni oching. Tomog'ingiz qizaribdi. Tumov bo'libsiz.
Open your mouth. Your throat is irritated. You got a cold.

● The knowledge might be obtained from a direct report from a trusted source:

Doktor menga aytdi, men sog'ayibman.
The doctor told me that I have recovered.

Sut olib kelmadingizmi?
Yo'q magazinda qolmabdi.

You did not bring any milk?
No, there wasn't any left. (so I have been told by the seller)

● Used at the first person, indirective past implies that the speaker has just become aware of some fact about himself. It means usually that fulfilment (or unfulfilment) of the action did not depend on his/her will. This holds true of all other tenses in the evidential mode (... ekanman).

Kitobni bugun olib kelishni unutibman.
I forgot to bring the book today.

Biz musiqa eshitib, uxlab qolibmiz.
(They say/we realized that) having listened to the music, we have fallen asleep.

● The event or action may still have current relevance (perfect value):

Biz kech qolibmiz. Samolyot uchib ketibdi.
It looks like we are late, the plane has flown.

Koreyalik o'rtog'imdan xat oldim.
Nimalar haqida yozibdi?

I received a letter from my Korean friend.
What has he written about?

● The indirective past may take the value of a present tense, as a derived meaning from this perfect value, while keeping its indirective value, the present state of things being stated without committing about the process having brought it. This is true for the four following verbs, o'tir-, 'to sit', yot-, 'to lie', tur-, 'to stand', yur-, 'to walk'. And this in turn provides grounds for the present continuous aspect value of the construction using the past genitive (in -IB) of the main verb followed by one of these four verbs at the indirective past.

U oshxonada o'tiribdi
He is sitting in the dining-room.

Qalam stol ustida turibdi.
The pencil is on the table.

● It is also the tense of past narration for stories or legend, hence its alternate name of narrative past; the unfolding of the story is like being re-discovered while being told, giving it a more lively tone.

Podsho vazirga maslahat qilibdi; Vazir: biroz vaqt o'tsin, debdi.
The king asked for some advice from his vizir; the vizir said: let's some time pass over.