Objective possibility and permission
Objective possibility refers to the possibility an agent has to perform an action, or that a situation occurs,
due to objective external factors.
Permission refers to the possibility an agent has to perform an action, thanks to an external authority.
Both possibilities may be more or less normative, that is the external enabling factor may be more or less general and abstract,
or conversely, personal and concrete. For instance general factors vs specific circumstances, or human law vs. persons.
The nominal construction "verb-ISHI MUMKIN", i.e. the infinitive suffixed with the possessive type of personal suffix,
and followed by the nominal predicate mumkin ('possible'), is the main form used to express objective possibility
as well as permission.
To express a possibility which applies to anybody or anything, the personal suffix is not used.
Objective possibility, of general application:
Bu magazinda qog'oz topish mumkinmi?
Can paper be found in this store?
Maydonda yana bitta haykalni ko'rish mumkin.
You can see still another statue on the place.
Mumkin bo'lsa, kelarsiz.
If it is possible, please come.
Objective possibility, for a specific person or fact:
Qizim, boshliqni qayerdan topishim mumkin?
Where can I find the boss?
Mana bu so'zni tushunmadim, uni qanday tarjima qilishim mumkin?
I didn't understand this word, how could I translate it?
Buning bo'lishi mumkin emas.
It is not possible.
Biz bilan yuz berishi mumkin bo'lgan baxtsizliklar.
Misfortunes which can happen to us.
- Performative modality:
Men ham borishim mumkinmi?
Could I also enter?
You can come in.
Sizdan so'rashim mumkinmi?
Can I ask you?
O'quvchilar chiqishlari mumkin.
The pupils can go out.
The possessive pronoun may be used for emphasis.
Uning chekishi mumkin emas.
He cannot smoke.
That construction, especially at the past form (using the past stative edi), may carry an epistemic meaning,
meaning the fact mentioned in the sentence may probably happen. The probability of occurrence is then somewhat intermediate
between the assumptive form in "-SA KERAK" and the presumptive form in -AR.
Xuddi shunday bo'lishi mumkin edi.
It could be well possible.
Unga bu nima ham qila olishi mumkin edi?
Would he possibly matter for that?
The verbal construction "verb-SA BO'L-", i.e. the conditional (suffixed with the possessive type of personal suffix),
followed by the verb bo'l- ('to be', 'to become') conjugated at the (impersonal) singular third person,
expresses an objective possibility as well as permission, with the additional shade of more normativity,
the external enabling factor being a more general and abstract law, and not mere circumstances or individuals.
The same range of meanings may be also expressed by the much rarer nominal construction "verb-SA MUMKIN".
Objective possibility, as a result of a general rule, and of general application:
Kasalxonaga qanday borsa bo'ladi?
How to go to the hospital?
In this meaning, the construction "verb-IB BO'L-", i.e. the past gerund followed by the verb bo'l-
conjugated at the (impersonal) singular third person, can also be used, especially at the negative form,
implying the impossibility to do, or the necessity not to do.
Yerni haydasa/haydab bo'ladi.
The soil can be ploughed.
Bu o'rinda hech narsa qilib bo'lmaydi.
We can't do anything for that.
Qishloqlarda, paxta dalalarida ruslarni uchratib bo'lmaydi.
You won't meet any Russian in the villages or in the cotton fields.
Also, at the stative, instead of using "bo'lsa bol'adi", or "bo'lib bo'ladi", the simple use of bo'l- can be enough to convey
the meaning of objective possibility (or impossibility).
Bundan yaxshiroq bo'lmaydi.
Better than that is impossible.
- Performative modality:
Permission (and interdiction):
Xonani ko'rsam bo'ladimi?
May I have a look at the room?
May I come in?
Shu kitobni olsam mumkinmi?
Can I buy this book?
We cannot not go.
In this meaning of permission, the nominal construction "verb-SA MAYLI" can also be used.
Sizga yordam bersam maylimi?
May I help you?
In some cases, the "verb-SA BO'L-" construction may take on a meaning implying internal ability
more than objective possibility or permission.
Bu ishni bir kunda bajarsam bo'ladi.
I can finish that job in one day.
Factitives ('make somebody/something do/be') can be applied to those modalities, giving derived meanings such as
enabling, permitting, preventing, forbidding.
Enabling, allowing: "verb-ISHGA IMKON BER-".
Uning sog'ligi unga sportning istagan turi bilan shug'ullanishga imkon beradi.
His health permits him to indulge in sport.
Mening mablag'larim menga avtomobil sotib olishga imkon bermaydi.
I can't afford to buy a car.
Bu qonun mamlakatning demokratik rivojlana olishiga imkon tug'dirdi.
This law made possible the democratic development of the country.
Permitting, allowing: "verb-ISHGA RUXSAT BER-", "verb-ISHGA / verb-ISH UCHUN YO'L QO'Y-",
"verb-ISHGA ROZILIK BER-" (consenting).
Onam menga sen bilan birga ko'chaga chiqishimga ruxsat bermaydi.
My mother doesn't let me go out with you.
Ona bolalariga bog'da o'ynashga ruxsat berdi.
The mother allowed her children to play in the garden.
Bu ishni qilishga yo'l qo'ying.
Please allow this work to be done.
Uning bu uyga kirishi uchun yo'l qo'ying!
Please allow him to enter this room!
Men sizga men bilan bunday ohangda gaplashishga yo'l qo'ymayman.
I don't permit you to speak that way with me.
Ota-onasi uning safarga borishga rozilik berdilar.
His parents gave their consent to his journey.
Bu ishni qilishga rozilik berasizmi?
Will you give leave for this work to be done?
Preventing, not permitting, allowing: "verb-ISHGA XALAQIT BER-".
Yomon havo samolyotimizning o'z vaqtida uchishiga xalaqit berdi.
Bad weather prevented from the timely take-off of our plane.
Musiqa menga ishlashga xalaqit bermaydi.
The music doesn't prevent me from doing a work.
Forbidding: "verb-ISHNI MAN QIL-", "verb-ISH TAQIQ".
Vrach unga chekishni man qildi.
The doctor has forbidden him to smoke.
Uning bu yerda kelishi man qilindi.
He has been forbidden to come here.
Bu yerga kirish taqiqdir.
It is forbidden to enter here.