Action and Modality

Will, Ability and Necessity

KEL- v.int | N(gi)X+i ~ feel like Xing, get X(y) Horizontal Motion
Evolution
Time
Authority
  Teatrga borgim keldi.
  I wanted to go to the theater.
     
ISTA- v.t | N(ish)X+ni ~ desire X, want X, wish X  
  Uyga ketishni istayman.
  I want to go home.
  istar-istamas reluctantly
  N(ish)X+ni astoydil ista- be longing for X
  Ota-ona o'z o'glidan biror xabar kelishini astoydil istaydi.
  The parents are longing for news from their son.
  U bilan uchrashishni Meri astoydil istaydi.
  Mary is longing for a meeting with him.
  N(ish)X+ni qattiq ista- long for X
  Men u bilan uchrashishni qattiq istayman.
  I am longing for an appointment with him.
istak n | N(ish)X+ga ~ aspiration, desire, wish for X
XOHISH n | N(ish)X+ga ~ wish, aspiration, desire for X  
  Bu yerga o'z xohishim bilan keldim.
  I came here of my own free will.
  Kinoga borish uchun xohishim bor.
  I have a wish to go to the cinema.
  xohish+ini bajo keltir- satisfy one's wish, desire
XOHLA- v.t | N(ish)X+ni ~ want X,wish X, desire X
  O'qishni xohlayman.
  I want to study.
  xohlamasdan reluctantly
xohlovchi n volunteer
IXTIYOR n will Necessity
ixtiyoriy adj voluntary, of one's free will
ixtiyorsiz ad involuntary(ly)
    compelled
beixtiyor adj involuntary(ly)
HAVAS n wish, desire, longing Emotions
  NX+da N(ish)Y ~+i bor (X) have desire for Y
  Menda kinoga borish havasi bor.
  I want to go to the cinema.
  NX+ning N(ish)Y+ga ~+i kel- (X) have desire for Y, want to have Y
  Bu odamning ko'p qirrali bilimiga havasim keladi.
  I envy this man for his many-sided knowledge.
  N(ish)X+ga havas qil- wish, desire X
  Uning muvaffaqiyatlariga u havas qilardi.
  She envied him his successes.
havasmand adj easily getting carried away
NAFS n desire, greed, lust Hatred
HIRS n greed, desire Hatred
  NX+ga ~ qo'y- be greedy for X
  Chet el matbuoti har qanday sensatsiyaga hirs qo'ygan.
  The press is greedy for any sensation.
  NX+ga ~ qo'yish greed for X, pursuit of X
  Boylikka hirs qo'yish baxt keltirmaydi.
  The pursuit of richness doesn't bring happiness.
ORZU n | N(ish)X haqidagi ~ desire, aspiration, hope, wish, dream of X Surprise
  Baxtli oilaviy hayot haqidagi orzu uning xayolidan ko'tarilmas edi.
  From this day on the dream of lucky family life didn't leave her.
  Odamlarning parvoz qilish haqidagi asriy orzusi 20-asrdagina amalga oshdi.
  The secular people's dream of flying realized only in the 20th century.
  Orzungizga yeting!
  May you be successful!
  N(ish)X+ni orzu qil- wish to X, hope that X, dream of Xing
  Har bir o'zbek ayol ona bo'lishni orzu qiladi.
  Every Uzbek woman dreams of becoming a mother.
  U mashinani orzu qiladi.
  She dreams of a car.
  Men Toshkentga borishni orzu qilaman.
  I want to go to Tashkent.
MUSHTOQ adj desired, highly-coveted  
mushtoqlik n desire, covetousness
HAFSALA n desire, wish  
kamhafsala adj inert, passive
TILA- v.t | NY+ga N(ish)X+ni ~ wish X (for Y) Solicitude
  Men sizga baxt tilayman.
  I wish you luck.
tilak n wish
MAYL n | NX+ga ~+i inclination, aspiration towards X, wish Emotions
Agreement
  Maylingiz bormi?
  What do you want?
  NX+ning NY+ga ~+i bor X be disposed to Y, have inclination towards Y, be in the mood for Y
  Uning hazilga mayli bor.
  He is disposed to jokes.
RAG'BAT n inclination, liking, desire Emotions
rag'batlan- v.int be interested, be motivated
rag'batlantir- v.t interest, motivate
INTIL- v.int | N(ish)X+ga ~ strive for X, attempt to X, have a leaning towards X, endeavour to X Processes
Undertaking
  U bilimga intiladi.
  He strives for knowledge.
  Markaziy Osiyo mamlakatlarining barcha xalqlari tinchlikka intiladilar.
  All people of Central Asia strive for peace.
  O'g'lingizda tarixni o'rganishga intilish bor.
  Your son has a leaning towards studying history.
  v.int | VX+gani ~ attempt to X
  Juvon shohni ushlagani ikki-uch intilib, ushlay olmadi.
  The young girl attempted to grab the branch two or three times, but could not.
  intilish attempt, striving, yearning
  Hayotda go'zallikka intilish - bizning ulkan ehtiyojimizdir.
  The striving for the beautiful in life is our big requirement.
  N(ish)X+ga ko'z+i qiyma- be reluctant to X  
ERIN- v.int | N(ish)X uchun ~ be unwilling to X, reluctant to X Character
ARANG adv with difficulty Difficulty
    reluctantly
  N(ish)X+ga bel bog'la- make up one's mind to X  
  o'z-o'zicha go one's own  
  o'z-o'zidan spontaneously
JON jon deb CX eagerly looking forward to X Life
Spirit
Persons
Love
     
     
     
  VX+ish uchun ko'ngl+i bor be willing to X Feelings
  Uning bu yerga kelish uchun ko'ngli bor.
  He wants to come here.
  VX+ishga ko'ngl+i tortma- be unwilling to X
  U yerga borishga ko'nglim tortmaydi.
  I don't want to go there.
ko'ngilli adj voluntary
  U ko'ngilli askar.
  He is a voluntary soldier.
qiziqtir- v.t | NX+ni N(ish)Y+ga ~ allure, prompt X to Y Emotions
  Iliq sentyabr havosi bizni sayr qilishga qiziqtiradi.
  The warm September weather allures us to an airing.
QAT'IY adj firm, resolute, determined Character
  Bu yerga kelishim qat'iydir.
  It is definite that I will come.
  adv thoroughly, resolutely
  Bu ishga qat'iy kirishish kerak.
  This work must be done thoroughly.
  N(ishi)X+dan qat'iy nazar regardless of X, irrespective of X
  Ularning kim bo'ldiklaridan qat'iy nazar, bu yerga keltirish kerak.
  Irrespective of who they may be, they must be brought here.
qat'iylik n firmness, resolution, determination
qat'iyat n determination, resolution, willpower
qat'iyatli adj determined, resolute
qat'iyatsiz adj irresolute, undecided
qat'iylash- v.int get resolute, determined
  NX+da qattiq tur- stand firm, persist in X  
  NX+ni qattiq turib ma'qulla- insist on X, persist in X
  Men o'z taklifimni qattiq turib ma'qullayman.
  I insist on my proposal.
  U albatta o'z fikrini kattiq turib ma'qullashni istaydi.
  He wants without fail to persist in his opinion.
VOZ n | N(ish)X+dan ~ kech- abandon X, renounce X, give up X, reject X  
  Nihoyat, u o'zining zararli odatidan voz kechdi.
  At last he abandoned his bad habit.
  Bu yil u xotinining kasalligi tufayli chet elga borishdan voz kechishi kerak edi.
  This year he had to reject a tour abroad because of the illness of his wife.
  Men bu ishdan voz kechaman.
  I will give up this job.
QAYT- v.int | NX+dan ~ refrain from X Horizontal Motion
Evolution
Frequency
Exchange
qaytar- v.t | NX+ni N(ish)Y+dan ~ dissuade X from Y
  U meni bu paltoni olishdan qaytardi.
  He dissuaded me from buying this coat.
  N(ish)X+dan bo'yin tovla- refrain from X  
  N(ish)X+dan o'z+ini tut- refrain from X Behaviour
Honour
  U Alisherning savoliga javob berishdan o'zini tutdi.
  She refrained from answering to Alisher's question.
TIY- v.t hold back, restrain  
  Og'zingni tiy!
  Hold your tongue!
tiyil- N(ish)X+dan ~ hold X off, abstain from X
  Vrach unga chekishdan tiyilishni maslahat berdi.
  The doctor advised him to abstain from smoking.
TASHLA- v.t give up, stop Undertaking
Release
Exchange
Clothing
Motion
  tashlab ket- give up, stop
     
     
     
bo'ysundir- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ subordinate X to Y Authority
  U hamma vaqt o'z manfaatlarini jamoat manfaatlariga bo'ysundirib kelgan.
  He has always subordinated his own interests to the public good.
  NX+ni tark et-/qil- give up X, renounce to X, abandon X  
  Sen bu yomon odatni tark etishing kerak.
  You have to give up this bad habit.
JUR'AT n daring, determination Courage
  Biz jur'at bilan ishlaymiz.
  We are working with determination.
  N(ish)X+ga jur'at qil-/et- dare X
    decide (o.s) for X
  Men toqqa jonashga jur'at etolmayapman.
  I couldn't decide for a trip to the mountains.
  NX uchun jur'at qil-/et- be bold, daring in X
  Vazifangizni bajarish uchun jur'at qilingiz.
  Be bold in carrying out your task.
BOTIN- v.int | VX+ish uchun ~ dare X  
QAROR n decision, resolution Utilization
  Kechagi majlisda maktab ishlarini yaxshilash uchun qaror qabul qilindi.
  At yesterday's meeting the resolution to improve school matters was carried.
  Qarori yo'q odam.
  Man of indecision.
  NX haqida ~ chiqar- adopt a decision about X
  NX asosida ~ top- rest on X
  VX+ishga qaror qil- decide to X
  Nihoyat, u shu safarga chiqishga qaror qildi.
  At last he decided on this journey.
  Jyuri bu skripkachiga birinchi mukofotni berishga qaror qildi.
  The judges awarded the first prize to this violonist.
  Men bu yerda qolishga qaror qildim.
  I have decided to stay here.
  qarorga kel- make up one's mind
  VX+ishga qat'iy qaror qil- be determined to X
  U o'z ta'tilini Qrimda o'tkazishga qat'iy qaror qildi.
  He is determined to spend his vacation in Crimea.
beqaror adj undecided
    fickle, inconstant
ikkilan- v.int hesitate, be undecided  
  ikkilanish hesitation
  Uning fikrida ikkilanish bor.
  There is some uncertainty in his mind.
  ikkilanmasdan / ikkilanmay without hesitation
ikkilanuvchi n hesitant, wavering
       
QOBILIYAT n capacity, capability, ability  
  U kishida bu ishni qilish uchun qobiliyat bor.
  That man has the ability to do this work.
  Unda shoirlik qobiliyati bor.
  He has poetic talent.
  NX+ga N(ish)Y ~+i bor (X) have the ability, aptitude for Y
  U matematikaga qobiliyati borligini ko'rsatdi.
  He shows aptitude for mathematics.
qobiliyatli adj capable, competent, able
qobiliyatsiz adj incapable, incompetent
qobiliyatsizlik n incompetence
ISTE'DOD n talent, faculty, ability  
iste'dodli adj talented, able
TALANT n talent  
talantli adj talented
talantsiz adj untalented
QODIR adj | N(ish)X+ga ~ (be) able, capable to X  
  Bu sportchi qisqa masofaga yugurishda yuqori ko'rsatkichlarga erishishga qodir.
  This sportsman is capable of high successes in spring.
  U bu ishni bir o'zi bajarishga qodir.
  She is capable to fulfill this work alone.
qodirlik n ability
LAYOQAT n | NX+ga ~ ability, capability, gift for X  
  Unda chet tillarga layoqat bor.
  He has gift for foreign language.
  Bu ishni qilish uchun unda layoqat bor.
  He has the ability to do this work.
layoqatli adj able, capable
layoqatsiz n incapable
layoqatsizlik adj inability
SHUD n ability, dexterity  
shudli adj capable, competent
noshud adj incapable, incompetent, clumsy
NO'NOQ adj clumsy, awkward, inapt  
no'noqlik n clumsiness, awkwardness, inaptitude
OL- v.t take Transfer
Prehension
Exchange
Toilet
Media
Interest
  VX+a ~ can X
  O'qiy olmadi.
  He was not able to read.
  U mening oldimga kela oldi.
  He was able to come to me.
BIL- v.t | NX+ni (NY haqida) (NZ+dan) ~ know X (about Y), have learned X (from Z), comprehend X Knowledge
Opinion
Pride
  VX+ishni ~ know how to X
  Suzishni bilasizmi?
  Can you swim?
  VX+a ~ know how to X
  Chap qo'lim bilan yozabilaman.
  I can write with my left hand.
USTA adj | NX+ga ~ expert in X, skilled in X Learning
Work
  G'affor shaxmatga usta.
  Ghaffar is an expert at chess.
ustalik n mastery, skills
TEXNIKA n technique, art, skill Science
  Sport texnikasi.
  Athletic skill.
HUNAR n craft, handicraft, profession, trade Science
Work
    skill, talent
MOHIR adj skilful, masterly, clever Science
mohirlik n skill
mohirona adv skilfully, masterfully, cleverly
MAHORAT n skill, mastery, technical ability
  Cho'lponda she'r yozish mahorati katta edi.
  Cholpan had great skill in writing poetry.
mahoratli adj highly skilled, masterly
mahoratsiz adj unskilled
MALAKA n qualifications Science
malakali adj qualified, skilled
  NX+ning ko'z+ini bil- know well how to do X  
  U ishning ko'zini biladi.
  He knows how to work.
  bosh+i garang bo'l- do not know what to do  
  NX+ning bosh+ini garang qil- bother X
DOVDIRA- v.int mumble, speak incoherently Speach
    be shocked, dumbfounded
  dovdirab qol- be in a dead-lock, be at an impasse
dovdirat- NX+ni dovdirab qo'y- put X in a dead-lock, discourage X
  Uning javobi uni dovdiratib qo'ydi.
  Her answer discouraged him.
LAPASHANG adj sluggish, slow  
IMKON n possibility Probability
Truth
Opportunity
Truth
  NY+ga V(ish)X+ga ~ ber- make X possible to Y, enable X for Y, permit Y to X
  Uning sog'ligi unga sportning istagan turi bilan shug'ullanishga imkon beradi.
  His health permits him to indulge in sport.
  V(ish)X+ga ~ ber- make X possible, enable X
  Bu qonun mamlakatning demokratik rivojlana olishiga imkon tug'dirdi.
  This law made possible the democratic development of the country.
MUMKIN adj possible
  Mumkin bo'lsa, kelarsiz.
  If it is possible, please come.
  adj | NX VY+ishi ~ (Y) be possible for X
  Kirish mumkin.
  You can come in.
  mumkin qadar to the best of one's ability
BO'L- v.int | VX+ish ~ (X) be possible Entities & Events
Change
Motion
Evolution
     
     
     
  NX+ga kuch+i yet- be in one's power to X Forces
  NX+ga qo'l+idan kel- be in position to X, have ability in X Results
EP n | N(ish)X+ning ~+i possibility, opportunity to X  
ojizona ad helpless(ly), powerless(ly) Health
  xudo xohlasa if God wills  
       
TANLA- v.t choose, select Organizations
  tanlab ol- pick up
  Bu qalamlardan birini tanlab oling!
  Choose one of these pencils!
  tanlash choice
tanlan- v.int be chosen, selected
tanlov n competition, selection
SARALA- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga qarab ~ sort, sort out X in Y  
  U oyoq kiyimlarni razmerlariga qarab saraladi.
  She sorted out the shoes in size.
  U qovunlarni saralayapti.
  He is sorting the melons.
  saralab ol- select, pick up
SAYLA- v.t | NX+ni NY qilib ~ elect, vote for, choose X as Y Organizations
  saylab ol- choose, select
  Bulardan birini saylab oling!
  Choose one of these!
QIL- v.t | NX+ni NY ~ make X Y Action
  U Ivanovni kotib qilishga va'da berdi.
  He promised to make Ivanov a secretary.
O'RIN
(o'rn+i)
NX+ning o'rniga instead of X Administration
Housing
Location
Tools & Furnitures
Preservation
Change
  Bu qalamning o'rniga boshqasini bering.
  Please give me another pencil instead of this one.
     
     
     
ERK n freedom, liberty  
erksiz adj without liberty; forced, compelled
erkin ad free(ly)
  Fransiyada matbuot erkin.
  There is freedom of the press in France.
  U Angliyada erkin yashadi.
  He lived freely in England.
erkinlik n freedom, liberty
OZOD adj | NX+dan ~ free from X, liberated, emancipated from X  
  Men bu ishdan ozodman.
  I am free from this work.
  Bu ozod mamlakat.
  This is a free country.
  ozod bo'l- be freed, liberated, exempted
  U askariy xizmatdan ozod bo'ldi.
  He was exempted from military service.
  NX+ni NY+dan ozod qil- free, liberate, relieve, exempt,excuse X from Y
  Vrach qizni jismoniy tarbiya darslaridan ozod qildi.
  The doctor excused the girl from physical education.
  Ishlab chiqarishni avtomatlashtirish ishchilarni og'ir qo'l mehnatidan ozod qiladi.
  The automation of production relieved the workers from hard hand work.
  Qamoqdan ozod qilmoq.
  To free from prison.
ozodlik n freedom, liberation, emancipation
  ozodlikka chiq- get one's freedom
  ozodlikka chiqar- free, emancipate, liberate
ozodla- v.t free, liberate
HUR adj free  
hurlik n freedom
HURRIYAT n freedom, liberty
ISTIQLOL n independence Authority
MUSTAQIL adj independent
  Biz mustaqil ravishda ish olib boramiz.
  We are doing our work independently.
mustaqillik n independence
AVTONOM adj autonomous  
avtonomiya n autonomy
MUXTOR adj autonomous  
muxtoriyat n autonomy
XALOS NX+dan ~ bo'l- be relieved, get rid of X, be freed, delivered from X  
  Mana xalos!
  That's all!
  NX+ni NY+dan xalos qil- relieve, free, deliver X from Y, spare X Y
  Men sizni bu tashvishdan xalos qilmoqchi edi.
  I wanted to spare you this care.
  Bu ishni boshimdan xalos qildim.
  I have been relieved of this work.
xaloskor n liberator, saviour
QUTUL- v.int | NX+dan ~ be released, break away, free o.s. from X, get rid of X Health
  Men bu fikrdan qutula olmayapman.
  I cannot get rid of this thought.
  Og'ir ahvoldan qutulish yo'lini topdi.
  He found a way out of a difficult situation.
  Qamoqxonadan qutulib chiqdi.
  He has been released from prison.
  NX+dan qochib ~ escape X, flee X, break away from X
  N(ish)X+dan ~+ib qol- escape X, avoid X
  Bu yigitcha jazolanishdan qutulib qoldi.
  The youth escaped the penalty.
  Hech kim u bilan suhbatlashishdan qutulib qololmadi.
  Nobody could avoid a talk with her.
qutultir- v.t | NX+ni NY+dan ~ release, free, liberate X from Y
MAJBUR adj | VX+ishga ~ (bo'l-) (be) forced, compelled, obliged to X Necessity
  Bu shahardan chiqib ketishga majbur bo'ldim.
  I was forced to leave the city.
  NX+ni N(ish)Y+ga majbur qil- force, compel, oblige X to Y
  Sharoit meni shunday qilishga majbur qildi.
  The circumstances forced me to take this step.
  Sharoit meni rejamni o'zgartirishga majbur qildi.
  The circumstances forced me to change my plan.
majburiy adj compulsory, obligatory
majburiyat n obligation, constraint
    duty
majburan adv by force
  NX+ni NY+ga majburan qabul qildir- thrust X on Y, impose X on Y
  U hech qachon o'g'liga o'z fikrini majburan qabul qildirishga urinmaydi.
  He never tries to thrust his opinion on his son.
zo'rla- v.t | NX+ni N(ish)Y+ga ~ force, compel, oblige X to Y Criminality
TO'SQIN n obstacle, hindrance  
  NX+ga ~ bo'l- hinder X, be an obstacle to X
to'sqinlik n hindrance, opposition
  NX+ga N(ish)Y+ga to'sqinlik qil- hinder X from Y, oppose against X (doing) Y
  Xastalik unga o'z rejalarini bajarishga to'sqinlik qildi.
  The illness hindered him from fulfilling his plans.
XALAQIT n hindrance, trouble  
  NY+ga N(ish)X+ga ~ ber- prevent Y from X, hinder Y (doing X); interfere in X
  Yomon havo samolyotimizning o'z vaqtida uchishiga xalaqit berdi.
  Bad weather prevented from the timely take-off of our plane.
  Musiqa menga ishlashga xalaqit bermaydi.
  The music doesn't prevent me from doing a work.
  Bu ishni qilishga xalaqit bermang!
  Don't hinder the work!
to'xtat- NX+ni N(ish)Y+dan ~+ib qol- keep X from Y Motion
Evolution
  Men uni bu xavfli qadamdan zo'rg'a to'xtatib qoldim.
  I had hardly kept him from taking that risk.
USHLA- NX+ni NY ~+b qol- hold back, keep, delay X for Y(=time) Prehension
Medicine
  Men sizni uzoq vaqt ushlab qolmoqchi emasman.
  I don't want to delay you for a long time.
  NX+ni NY+dan ~+b qol- keep X from Y, prevent X from Y
  Men uni bu xavfli qadamdan ushlab qololmayman.
  I cannot keep him from takong this risk.
XALAL NY+ga N(ish)X+ga xalal ber- prevent Y from X, hinder, block Y (doing X); interfere in X, spoil X  
  Mashinkaning shovqini menga korrektura o'qishga xalal bermoqda.
  The noise of the type-writer prevents me from reading the proofs.
BO'SH adj empty, void Density
    free (time, people), vacant (space)
  Bo'sh uyingiz bormi?
  Have you a room to let?
  Bu yer bo'shmi?
  Is this place taken?
bo'shla- v.int become empty, be free
BAND adj busy, engaged, taken (space, people) Housing
Business
  Men bandman.
  I am busy.
  Telefon liniyasi band.
  The line is engaged.
  band bo'l- be busy
  band qil- occupy
    rent; reserve
IXTIYOR n | NX+ning ~+ida (at X's) disposal Will
  Bu uy nafaqaxo'rlarning ixtiyorida.
  This house is at the pensioneers' disposal.
VAQT vaqt+i bor have time Opportunity
Time
  Vaqtingiz bormi?
  Have you got time?
  vaqt+i yo'q have no time
  N(ish)X+ga qo'l+i tegma- have no time for X  
  Bu ishni qilishga qo'lim tegmaydi.
  I haven't time to do this.
       
  N(ish)X+ga to'g'ri kel- it is suitable to X; it is necessary to X Copy & Adaptation
Truth
Value
  Ko'p ishlashga to'g'ri keldi.
  A lot of work had to be done.
  Uning bilan to'g'ri kelgan joyda so'zlashaman.
  I will talk to him wherever I can get hold of him.
KERAK n necessity, need Truth
  adj | NY+ga (N(ish)Z uchun) NX ~ (Y) need X (for Z)
  Oliy o'quv yurtiga kirish uchun yetuklik attestati kerak.
  You need a school-leaving certificate to enter a high school.
  Boltaga sop kerak.
  The axe needs a handle.
  Shashilish kerak emas.
  There is no need to hurry.
  Sizga nima kerak?
  What do you need?
  adj | NX VY+ishi ~ (X) must Y
  Unga yordam berish kerak.
  He must be helped.
  Yo'l bermaslik kerak.
  It must not be allowed.
  keragicha as necessary, as required
keraklik n necessity, need, requirement
kerakli adj necessary, needed
keraksiz adj unnecessary
LOZIM n necessity, need, requirement  
  adj | NX+ga NY ~ (X) need Y
  Bu kitob o'zimga lozim.
  I need this book myself.
  adj | NX VY+ishi ~ (X) must Y
  Bu masala tez hal qilinishi lozim.
  This problem must be resolved quickly.
ZARUR adj necessary, essential  
  Bu kitob sizga zarurmi?
  Do you need this book?
  Zarur vositalar.
  Essential measures.
zarurlik n necessity
zarurat n necessity, need
zaruriyat n necessity, need
ZOR n strong need Authority
zoriq- v.int | NX+ga ~ be in great need of X
DARKOR n necessity, need  
  adj | NX+ga NY ~ (Y) be necessary, needed to X
SHART n condition (necessary for sth) Circumstance & Causality
  NX VY+ishi ~ (X) have to Y (emphatic)
HOJAT n need, necessity, urge  
  Xalqning hojatini qondirish kerak.
  It is necessary to satisfy the demands of the people.
  NX+ning NY+ga ~+i bor X need Y
  NX+ning NY+ga ~+i yo'q X have no need of Y
  Bu narsaning menga hojati yo'q.
  I have no need of this thing.
  Bu yerga kelishingizning hojati yo'q.
  There is no need for you to come here.
hojatli adj necessary
hojatsiz adj unnecessary
ASLO adv (with neg.) not at all, on no account, never  
ZINHOR adv (with neg.) on no account  
SIRA adv (with neg.) never Frequency
qat'iyan adv definitely Opinion
MUHTOJ adj needy, in need Wealth
  NX+ga ~ (bo'l-) need X, be in need of X
  Men sening yordamingga muhtojman.
  I need your assistance.
  Ahmad papirosga muhtoj bo'ldi.
  Ahmad needs some cigarettes.
  Men pulga muhtojman.
  I need money.
muhtojlik n need for X, lack of X
  Non va pulga muhtojlik chor Rossiyasida dehqonlarni shaharlarga haydadi.
  The lack of bread and money drove peasants in tsarist Russia to the cities.
muhtojsiz adj without any need
EHTIYOJ n | NX+ga ~ needs, demands for X
  Xalqning moddiy va madaniy ehtiyojini qondirish kerak.
  The material and cultural needs of the people must be satisfied.
  NX+da NY+ga ~ bor X (has) a need for Y
  Qariyada osoyishtalikka ehtiyoj bor.
  The old man has a need for a rest.
  NX uchun talab qil- require, need for X Authority
  Buning uchun siz nima talab qilasiz?
  What do you require for it?
KET- v.int | NY uchun NX ~ need to take/spend X for Y Entities & Events
Motion
Change
     
     
TALAB n | NX+ga ~ demand for X Authority
  Bu kitobga talab katta.
  There is a great demand for that book.
BURCH n | (NX oldidagi) ~ duty, obligation (by X)  
  U ota-onasini oldidagi burchini bajardi.
  He has done his duty by his parents.
  Biz o'z burchimizni o'tashimiz kerak.
  We must fulfil our obligation.
burchli adj indebted
majburiyat n duty Necessity
navbatchi n (person) on duty Military
navbatchilik n duty

Acts and Results

QIL- v.t do, make, perform Necessity
  Bu ishni qiling!
  Do this work!
  Bu yerda nima qilib yuribsiz?
  What are you doing here?
  Yaxshi qildingiz!
  Well done!
  v.t | NX+ni NY ~ make X Y
qilin- v.int be done, be made, be performed
qilmish n action, conduct
ISH n matter, affair, business, thing Entities & Events
Work
Undertaking
Forces
Trade
Production
Utilization
  Ishingizni qiling!
  Mind your own business!
  Ishning ichida ish bor.
  There is something behind this.
    work, job, task
  Ishim boshimdan ortib yotibdi.
  I am swamped with work.
  NX bilan ~+i bor have business to do with X
  Bu odam bilan ishim bor.
  I have some business to do with this man.
  NX+ni ~+ga osh- carry out X
  Bu qarorni ishga oshirish kerak.
  This resolution must be carried out.
  ish ko'r- handle affairs, act
  ish tut- handle affairs, act
ishla- v.int work
  NX ustida ~ work at X
  Yozuvchi bu kitob ustida bir necha yil ishlagan.
  The writer worked several years at this book.
  NX+ni ~+b chiq- work X out, process, study X
  Men bu matnni jiddiy ishlab chiqdi.
  I have thoroughly studied this subject.
ishlat- v.t use, utilize, employ
ishchan adj hard-working, dynamic, resourceful
YUMUSH n work, job, task Work
HARAKAT n movement, move Motion
Undertaking
  Ishchilar harakati.
  The workers' movement.
    action
  harakat qil- act
  U o'zboshimcha harakat qilmoqda.
  He is acting independently.
  qarshi harakat qil- react
harakatsiz adj inactive
harakatchan adj active
FAOL adj active  
faoliyat n activity
  Shoirning hayoti va faoliyati.
  The life and work of the poet.
  Uning faoliyatidan xursand bo'ldim.
  I am pleased with his activity.
faoliyatli adj active, of action
faoliyatsiz adj inactive
AMAL n action, deeds Firms
Undertaking
Thought
  So'zda emas amalda ish qilmoq kerak.
  Deeds are needed not words.
  amalda in practice
  NX+ni amalga oshir- bring about, realize X, put X into effect
  Sizning yordamingizsiz u o'z rejalarini amalga oshirolmas edi.
  Without your help she wouldn't realize her plans.
  Qonunni amalga oshirish kerak.
  The law must be put into effect.
  amal qil- act, have an effect
  Dori amal qildi.
  The drug took effect.
  NX+ga amal qil- act according to X, follow X, keep X, be ruled by X
  Mashq uchun berilgan ko'rsatmalarga amal qiling.
  Follow the instructions of the exercise.
  O'zbekistan respublikasi boshqa mamlakatlar bilan o'z munosabatlarida tinch-totuv yashash prinsiplariga amal qiladi.
  In its relations with the other countries the Republic of Uzbekistan is ruled by the principles of peaceful co-existence.
  Bu ishni qilishda qonunga amal qiling.
  When doing this job, act in accordance with the law.
amaliy adj practical
  Unga amaliy yordam kerak.
  He needs practical help.
amaliyot n practice
amalla- v.int | NX bilan ~ come through all right, handle well, manage with X
  Men shu summa bilan amallayman.
  I manage with this sum.
tomonidan post | NX+ning ~ by X (action performed thru X)  
  Uy polisning tomonidan qurshab olindi.
  The house was surrounded by the police.
tarafidan post | NX+ning ~ by X (action performed thru X)  
  Hukumat tarafidan berilgan buyruq kuchga kirdi.
  The order given by the Government has come into force.
BEKOR adj, n idle(ness) Undertaking
Entities & Events
Meaning
    useless(ness), empty, emptiness
  n nothing
  bekorga for nothing, in vain
  Sizga bu kitobni bekorga beraman.
  I will give you this book for nothing.
  bekorga ket- be in vain
  So'zim bekorga ketdi.
  My words were in vain.
  bekor qil-/et- cancel, rescind, annul
  Ular kontraktni bekor qilishdi.
  They have annuled the contract.
  Kechagi chiqarilgan qaror bekor qilindi.
  The decision which was given yesterday has been rescinded.
ZOYE adv in vain, at a loss Utilization
  zoye bo'l- be in vain, be wasted
  Qilgan ishimiz zoye bo'ldi.
  Our work was in vain.
  zoye ket- be in vain, be wasted
  zoye qil- waste, squander
  U pulini zoye qildi.
  He wasted his money.
BEHUDA ad useless, nonsensical Meaning
Intelligence
     
BEJIZ ad without a reason, aimless(ly)  
  bejiz emas not without reason
       
UCHUN post | N(ish)X ~ for X (sake/purpose), in order to X Circumstance & Causality
  Mening uchun beshta kitob olib keling!
  Bring me five books!
  Xolamni ko'rish uchun bordim.
  I went to see my aunt.
  post | N(gani)X ~ for X (reason), because of X
DE- NX deb CY Y with X in mind, Y for the sake of X Authority
Speach
Language
     
     
NIYAT n intention, aim  
  Kelgusi oyda ketish uchun niyatim bor.
  My intention is to leave next month.
  VX+ishga niyat qil- intend to X, mean to X
  NX+ni niyat qil- aim X
  AX niyat qil- mean X, intend X
  U yaxshi niyat qiladi.
  He means well.
MAQSAD n purpose, goal, aim, intention  
  maqsad+iga yet- achieve one's aim
  Maqsadimga yetdim.
  I have achieved my aim.
  maqsad bilan with a purpose
  Nima maqsad bilan bu yerga keldingiz?
  What was your purpose in coming here?
maqsadsiz adj aimless, purposeless
MUROD n wish, aim  
  murod+iga yet- achieve one's aim
MANZIL n goal, aim, destination Travel
  Manzilga tongda yetib bordik.
  We reached our destination at dawn.
  manzil+iga yet- attain one's goal
G'OYA n ideal, aim, object  
g'oyali adj with ideals
g'oyaviy adj ideal
g'oyasiz adj with no ideal
qaratil- N(ish)X+ga ~ be directed at X Authority
  Bu muzokalar janjalli masalalari tinch yo'l bilan hal qilishga qaratilgan.
  These negociations are directed at the peaceful resolution of contentious issues.
NISHON n mark, sign Meaning
Social Symbols
    target
nishona n mark
JO'RTTAGA adv deliberately, intentionally  
G'ARAZ n (evil) design, (ill) intent Hatred
  VX+ishga g'araz qil- have evil designs, ill intent to X
g'arazli ad intentional(ly), deliberate(ly)
g'arazsiz ad unintentionally, inadvertently
QASD n (evil) design; grudge Hatred
  Menda nima qasdingiz bor?
  What grudge do you have against me?
qasdan adv intentionally, deliberately
LOYIHA n project, scheme, plan, design  
loyihala- v.t plan, design
loyihachi n designer
REJA n plan, project, draft  
  NX+ni ~+ga ol- plan X
  Qilajak ishimizni rejaga oldik.
  We planned our future work.
rejali adj planned
rejasiz adj unplanned
rejalashtir- v.t plan
PROYEKT n project, design  
XOMAKI n draft  
PLAN n plan  
planli adj planned
plansiz adj unplanned
planlashtir- v.t plan
  planlashtirish planning
MO'LJAL n | NX+ga ~ draft, plan for X Military
Thought
  Sizning yozga mo'ljalingiz qanday?
  What are your plans for summer?
  Mo'ljalingizda soat necha bo'ldi?
  What do you think is the time?
mo'ljalla- v.t draft, plan
mo'ljallan- NX+ga ~ be intended for X, aimed at X
  Kitob keng kitobxonlar ommasiga mo'ljallangan.
  This book is intended for a large audience.
TASHABBUS n initiative, proposal, efforts  
tashabbuskor n initiator, instigator, pioneer
tashabbuskorlik n initiative, venture, undertaking
  NX+ning old+ini ol- prevent, pre-empt, avert X  
  Kasalni davolashdan ko'ra, uning oldini olish osonroq.
  It is easier to avert an illness than to treat it.
  Bu xavfning biz qanday qilib oldini olishimiz mumkin?
  How can we avert this danger?
PROGRAMMA n program Media
  kun tartibi agenda  
       
KUT- v.t wait for Attention
Invitation
Surprise
Opinion
  Meni shu yerda kutib tur!
  Wait for me here!
  Biz avtobusni uzoq vaqt kutdik.
  We waited a long time for the bus.
  Sizni iyun oyida kutaman.
  I will expect you in June.
  v.t | NX+ni NY+dan ~ expect X from Y
kutil- v.int be waited for
kuttir- v.t keep sb waiting
POYLA- v.t wait for, await Attention
poylat- v.t keep sb waiting
INTIZOR adj | N(ish)X+ga ~ eagerly, anxiously, impatiently awaiting X Character
  N(ish)X+ga ~ bo'l- await X eagerly, anxiously, impatiently
  intizor qil- oblige to wait
intizorlik n waiting (with impatience)
NAVBAT n turn Evolution
    queue, line
  N(ish)X+ga ~+da tur- stand in a line, in a queue for X
  Biz tushlik qilishga navbatda uzoq turmadik.
  We stood not long in the queue for dinner.
  U navbatda turyapti.
  She is standing in a queue.
  navbatdagi following, next
KO'R- v.int | VX+ib ~ try to X, attempt to X Visits & Greetings
Reflection
Authority
Vision
Tourism
  Sigaretingizdan chekib ko'raychi.
  Let me try one of your cigarettes.
  U miltiqdan otib ko'ryapti.
  He is trying to fire a gun.
BOQ- v.int | VX+ib ~ try to X, attempt to X Vision
Attention
Vital Functions
  Kitobingizni o'qib boqaychi!
  Let me have a look at your book!
  harakat qil- act Action
  N(ish)X uchun harakat qil- endeavour to X, try to X
  O'qishni shu yil tamom qilish uchun harakat qilaman.
  I will try to complete my studies this year.
  VX+ishga harakat qil- endeavour to X, try to X, strive for X
  Men ikki xonali kvartira olishga harakat qilyapman.
  I am striving for a two-room flat.
urin- v.int | VX+ishga ~ attempt to X, try to X  
  Biz ishimizni o'z vaqtida bitirish uchun urinamiz.
  We are trying to finish our work on time.
  Bu uyni sotib olish uchun ko'p urindim.
  I tried very hard to buy this house.
  VX+ishga ~+ib ko'r- attempt to X, try to X
  U kitoblari sonini oshirishga urinib ko'rdi.
  He attempted to increase the number of his books.
  urinish attempt, try
TIRISH- v.int | VX+ish uchun ~ try hard to X, endeavour to X Character
  Vazifangizni o'z vaqtida bajarish uchun tirishing.
  Try to finish your task on time.
tirishqoq adj hardworking, diligent, assiduous
  zo'r ber- make an effort, take the trouble to try  
INTIL- v.int | N(ish)X+ga ~ strive for X, attempt to X, have a leaning towards X, endeavour to X Processes
Will
  U bilimga intiladi.
  He strives for knowledge.
  Markaziy Osiyo mamlakatlarining barcha xalqlari tinchlikka intiladilar.
  All people of Central Asia strive for peace.
  O'g'lingizda tarixni o'rganishga intilish bor.
  Your son has a leaning towards studying history.
  v.int | VX+gani ~ attempt to X
  Juvon shohni ushlagani ikki-uch intilib, ushlay olmadi.
  The young girl attempted to grab the branch two or three times, but could not.
  intilish attempt, striving, yearning
  Hayotda go'zallikka intilish - bizning ulkan ehtiyojimizdir.
  The striving for the beautiful in life is our big requirement.
G'AYRAT n energy, willpower, zeal Character
  Uning g'ayrati bor odam.
  He is an energetic man.
  N(ish)X uchun g'ayrat qil- strive to X, endeavour to X
  Vazifangizni bajarish uchun g'ayrat qiling!
  Strive to do your duty!
g'ayratlan- v.int display vigour, bestir oneself
g'ayratlantir- v.t raise sb's spirit, cheer sb up
ishchan adj hard-working, dynamic, resourceful Action
ishchanlik n dynamism, resourcefulness
QUNT n persistence, concentration  
KURASH- v.int wrestle, fight Fighting
  v.int | N(ish)X uchun ~ struggle, fight, strive for X
  Barcha mamlakatlarning progressiv yoshlari tinchlik uchun, yangi urushga qarshi kurashmoqdalar.
  The progressive young people of all countries fight for peace, against a new war.
  Paxta xosilini oshirish uchun kurashish uchun.
  One must strive to increase cotton production.
  NX uchun kurashish struggle, fight for X
  Tinchlik uchun kurashish barcha yaxshi niyatli kishilar ishidir.
  The fight for peace is the cause of all people of good will.
NOMZOD n candidate Organizations
  Bu kishi bizning nomzoddir.
  This man is our candidate.
nomzodlik n application
BEKOR adj, n idle(ness) Action
Entities & Events
Meaning
bekorchi n idler, unoccupied person
bekorchilik n idleness, inactivity
       
TAYYOR adj | N(ish)X+ga ~ ready, prepared for X  
  Ota-ona hammavaqt har qanday fidokorlikka tayyor.
  The parents are always ready for any sacrifice.
  O'qituvchilar o'quvchilarga yordam berishga doim tayyor.
  The teachers are always ready to help pupils.
  Men har qanday tasodiflarga tayyor.
  I am ready to do anything.
  tayyor bo'l- be ready, get ready, get prepared
  Ishimiz kecha tayyor bo'ldi.
  Our work was ready yesterday.
  tayyor qil- prepare
  Bu ishni tayyor qiling!
  Prepare this work!
tayyorlik n preparations
tayyorla- v.t prepare
  Yerni ekishga tayyorlamoq.
  Prepare the land for sowing.
tayyorlan- v.int | N(ish)X+ga ~ prepare (o.s) for X, get ready for X
  Imtihonga tayyorlanmoq.
  Prepare the exams.
tayyorgarlik n preparations
    readiness
HOZIR adj | ~ (bo'l-) be present, be ready Time
  Ishni boshlashga hozirmiz.
  We are ready to start work.
  Soat beshda idorada hozir bo'ling!
  Be at the office at five o'clock.
hozirlik n preparations
  NX+ga ~ ko'r- get ready for X
hozirla- v.t prepare, get ready
hozirlan- v.int | NX+ga ~ prepare for X, get ready for X
kirish- v.int | N(ish)X+ga ~ set about X, get down to X, start Xing Horizontal Motion
Evolution
  Qizlar tushlikdan so'ng yana ishga kirishdilar.
  After the dinner, the girls got down again to work.
OCH- v.t open, set up, start Processes
Reflection
Vital Functions
Processes
  Keksa professor kongressni ochdi.
  The old professor opened the congress.
  Yangi maktab ochdik.
  We opened the new school.
ASOS n basis, foundation, ground Importance
Thought
Informing
  NX+ga ~ sol- lay the foundations of X
asosla- v.t argue
    found, base, ground
  Siz o'z fikringizni asoslab bera olasizmi?
  Can you ground your opinion?
asoschi n founder
QO'ZG'A- v.t arouse, stir up, give rise to, cause Motion
qo'zg'at- v.t arouse, stir up, give rise to, cause, excite
  Musobaqa tashabbuskorlikni qo'zg'atadi.
  The competition excites the initiative.
  v.t | NX+ni NY+da NZ bilan ~ arouse, stir up, cause X at Y with Z
  O'zining mulohazasi bilan u bizda shafqat qo'zg'atdi.
  She stired up sympathy at us with her remarks.
QO'Y- v.t put forward, give Release
Appliances
  O'g'lingizga qanday ot qo'ydingiz?
  What name did you give your son?
    put away, quit, give up
  Qo'ysangchi!
  Stop it!
  v.int | VX+ib ~ do X (and cause a result)
  O'g'lingiz maktabga kelmay qo'ydi.
  Your son has stopped attending school.
  Otamni otga mindirib qo'ydim.
  I helped my father mount the horse.
  v.int | VX+may ~ stop Xing
  yo'lga qo'y- put into effect, implement
TASHLA- v.t throw, throw away Release
Exchange
Will
Clothing
Motion
  VX+ib ~ do X quickly and thoroughly
  Daraxtni kesib tashladik.
  We cut up the tree.
  Ikki minut ichida bir varaq xat yozib tashladim.
  In two minutes I dashed off a letter of one page.
  O't olgan uyning eshiklarini ochib tashladik.
  We flung open the doors of the house which was on fire.
YUBOR- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ send X to Y Transfer
  VX+ib ~ do X suddenly and completely
  Bu ishni tezdan bitirib yuborish kerak.
  This work must be finished even quicker.
  U eshikni kuch bilan ochib yubordi.
  He burst the door open with force.
  U to'satdan kulib yubordi.
  He suddenly burst out laughing.
AMAL amalga osh- be completed Action
Firms
  NX+ni amalga oshir- bring about, realize X, put X into effect
  Sizning yordamingizsiz u o'z rejalarini amalga oshirolmas edi.
  Without your help she wouldn't realize her plans.
  Qonunni amalga oshirish kerak.
  The law must be put into effect.
    implement, enforce X
BAJO adj not bad, okay  
  bajo keltir- fulfill, complete
BAJAR- v.t carry out, fulfill, complete
  Berilgan vazifani bajarish kerak.
  The set task must be fulfilled.
  Ishning to'qsan foizini bajardik.
  We have completed ninety percent of the work.
bajaril- v.int get carried out, fulfilled, completed
IJRO n execution, carrying out, fulfillment  
  ijro et-/qil- execute, carry out, fulfill
ijrochi n executant
ijroiya adj executive
ADO n fulfillment, carrying out  
  ado et-/qil- fulfill, carry out
O'TA- v.t carry out, fulfill  
  NX+ning vazifasini o'ta- serve as X
  Bu to'nog'ich bezak vazifasini o'taydi.
  This broch serves as an adornment.
TARAQQIY adj developing, progressing Evolution
  taraqqiy qil-/et- develop, progress, advance
taraqqiyot n development, progress, advancement
  Afrika mamlakatlari taraqqiyot uchun harakat etmoqdalar.
  The african countries are striving for progress.
  oldga sur- push forward, advance  
  oldga suril- progress
  NX+ni olib bor- conduct X, carry on X Transfer
  NX+ni NY+ga olib bor- fulfill X to Y(=degree of achievement)
MASHG'UL adj | NX bilan ~ (bo'l-) (be) busy with X Learning
  Kitob o'qish bilan mashg'ulman.
  I am busy reading a book.
mashg'ulot n task, operation
    studies; classes
SHUG'ULLAN- v.int | NX bilan ~ be engaged in X, go in for X; be busy with X, be occupied at X
  Siz ham savdo bilan shug'ullanasizmi?
  Are you also engaged in commerce?
  v.int | NX ustida ~ be engaged in X; be busy with X, be occupied at X
  Bu muammo ustida ko'p olimlar shug'ullanmoqda.
  Many scientists are engaged in this problem.
O'T- v.int | (boshqa) NX+ga ~ change to (an other) X Horizontal Motion
Time
Results
Learning
Travel
Transfer
Gatherings
o'tkaz- v.int | (boshqa) NX+ga ~ go to (an other) X
     
     
     
     
     
       
ERISH- v.int | NY+da NX+ga ~ achieve, obtain, attain X in Y, see X through  
  Ishchilar yangi metod bilan yaxshi natijalarga erishtilar.
  The workers have attained good results by this new method.
  U o'z ishida yaxshi natijalarga erishdi.
  He achieved good results in his work.
QOZON- v.t gain, win, obtain Exchange
  U xalq orasida shuhrat qozongan.
  He has won fame among the people.
NATIJA n result; conclusion Circumstance & Causality
  N(gani)X ~+sida as a result of X
  Yer qimirlash natijasida bir qancha uylar yakson bo'ldilar.
  As a result of the earthquake, several houses were destroyed.
  natija ber- have, yield a result
  Kechagi ishimiz hech qanday natija bermadi.
  Our yesterday's work had no result at all.
  NX+da ~+ga erish- achieve results in X
natijali ad effective(ly), with results
natijasiz ad ineffective(ly), without results
OQIBAT n result, end Circumstance & Causality
oqibatli adj effective, with results
oqibatsiz adj vain, without results
MUVAFFAQ VX+ishga ~ bo'l- succeed in Xing, manage to X  
  Parijga kelishga muvaffaq bo'ldim.
  I managed to come to Paris.
muvaffaqiyat n | N(ish)X+ida ~ success in X, achievement in X
  Bu ishimizda muvaffaqiyatga ega bo'ldik.
  We were successful in this work of ours.
  n | NX bo'yicha ~ success in X, achievement in X
  U barcha fanlar bo'yicha yaxshi muvaffaqiyatlarga erishgan.
  He has good successes in all subjects.
  N(ish)X+ida ~+(lar)ga erish- be successful, have success in X
  U hayotda yaxshi muvaffaqiyatlarga erishgan.
  He has good successes in life.
  muvaffaqiyat qozon- succeed
muvaffaqiyatli ad successful(ly)
  muvaffaqiyatli chiq- be successful (action)
muvaffaqiyatsiz adj unsuccessful
muvaffaqiyatsizlik n failure, setback
  muvaffaqiyatsizlikga uchra- fail, be unsuccessful
MUYASSAR n | N(ish)X+ga ~ bo'l- succeed in X, obtain X, achieve X  
yutuq n achievement, success  
  Qo'lga kiritgan yutuqlarimizni mustahkamlaylik!
  Let us consolidate the achievements which we have in our grasp!
  NX+da ~ qozon- succeed in X
yutuqli adj successful
  o'ngidan kel- go ahead successfully (affairs)  
ULGUR- v.int | NX+ga ~ get to X, reach X in time, be in time for X Horizontal Motion
  Men oxirgi poyezdga ulgurdim.
  I was in time for the last train.
  NX+ga ~+may qol- miss X, be late for X
TEG- NX+ga ~+may qol- miss X Processes
Possession
     
epla- v.t manage to, do successfully  
  qo'l+idan kel- be able to manage Ability
yetish- v.int | NX+ga ~ attain X, catch up with X Quantity
Horizontal Motion
  NX+dan ~+ib ol- catch up with X
  Viktor matematikadan yetishib oldi.
  Victor has catched up with the mathematics.
tugat- v.t finish, complete, put an end to Learning
Evolution
    liquidate, wipe out
  Vazirlik trestda bir necha bo'limlarni tugatdi.
  The Ministry has liquidated several departments in the trust.
BARTARAF bartaraf bo'l- end, get settled  
  bartaraf qil- end, settle, get rid of
YENG- v.t overcome Victory & Defeat
  Bizning xalqimiz har qanday qiyinchiliklarni yengadi.
  Our people overcome every difficulties.
O'T- v.int be valid, be effective, have market Horizontal Motion
Time
Learning
Undertaking
Travel
  Bu mollar o'tmaydi.
  These goods have no market.
     
     
       
OL- VX+ib ~ X for one's own benefit / suffering Ability
Transfer
Prehension
Exchange
Toilet
Media
  Etigimni kiyib oldim.
  I have my boots on.
  Men yozib oldim.
  I wrote it down.
  Sutni qoldirmay, ichib ol!
  Don't leave the milk, drink it up!
BER- v.int | VX+ib ~ X for s.o. else's benefit, assistance Evolution
Exchange
  U bu bolaga kitob o'qib berdi.
  He read a book to this child.
  Unga xat yozib berdim.
  I wrote a letter for him.
FOYDA n advantage, benefit, profit Finance
Utilization
  NX+ning ~+siga bo'l- be to the advantage of X
  foyda chiqar- take advantage of
  foyda keltir- bring benefit, help
  foyda qil- bring benefit, help
  Bu dora foyda qildi.
  This medicine brought some benefit.
foydali adj advantageous, beneficial, useful to X, stand X in good stead
  Otamning maslahati men uchun foydali bo'ldi.
  My father's advice stood me in good stead.
  NX+da ~ bo'l- prove effective by X
  Ishlab chiqarishning yangi metodi bizda juda foydali bo'ldi.
  The new method of production proved highly effective by us.
foydasiz adj without advantage, not beneficial, useless
befoyda adj without advantage, not beneficial, useless
foydalan- v.int | NX+dan (N(ish)Y uchun) ~ take advantage of X, use, make use of X, utilize X (for Y), handle X
  Uyni yig'ishtirish vaqtida bir changyutgichdan foydalanamiz.
  During the cleaning we make use of a vacuum cleaner.
  Sen termometrdan ehtiyotlik bilan foydalanishing kerak.
  You must handle the thermometer carefully.
  Men bo'sh vaqtimdan o'qish uchun foydalanaman.
  I use my free time for reading.
MANFAAT n interest, profit, benefit  
  Davlat manfaatidan o'z manfaatini afzal ko'radigan hodimlar bor.
  There are some officials who put their own interest before that of the state.
  o'z+ining manfaatga to one's advantage
manfaatli adj advantageous, interesting
manfaatsiz adj without advantage, uninteresting
manfaatparast n person looking for advantages
manfaatdor n | N(ish)X+dan ~ beneficiary from X, (person) interested in X, concerned by X
  Bu muammoni tez hal qilinishdan hammamiz manfaatdormiz.
  We all are interested on a prompt decision on this problem.
  Biz bu yangi ishdan juda manfaatdormiz.
  We all are profoundly interested in this new work.
YUT- v.t win Sport
Exchange
  v.t | NX+dan ~ gain, benefit from X
  Bundan men hech narsa yutmayman.
  I have nothing to gain from this.
  U ot chopish o'yinidan 100 000 so'm yutdi.
  He won 100,000 som at the horse races.
NAF n worth, value, benefit  
  N(ish)X+dan ~ ol- benefit from X
nafsiz adj without value, not beneficial
SAMARA n result, fruit, product  
samarali adj fruitful, profitable, efficient
samarasiz adj fruitless, unprofitable, inefficient
YORDAM NX+ga N(ish)Y+da ~ ber- bring benefit to X, promote X Participation
  Savdo aloqalari xalqlarni bir-birlarini tushunishlariga yordam beradi.
  The commercial contacts promote mutual understanding among the people.
ZARAR n harm, damage, loss  
  Zarari yo'q!
  It doesn't matter!
  NX+ga ~ yetkaz- harm to X; injure X
  Chekish sog'liqqa zarar yetkazadi.
  Smoking harms to the health.
  Bu bizning manfaatlarimizga zarar yetkazadi.
  This injures our interests.
  NX+ga ~ ber- harm X
  U ishimizga zarar berdi.
  He did our business harm.
  zarar tort- lose, get damage
  zarar keltir- cause damage
  NX+dan ~ ko'r- be damaged by X
  Xastalikdan uning sog'lig'i zarar ko'rdi.
  His health was damaged by an illness.
  zarar qil- lose, get damage
  Kecha savdodan 100 000 so'm zarar qildim.
  I lost 100,000 som in business yesterday.
zararli adj harmful, detrimental
zararsiz adj harmless
ZIYON n loss, damage, harm Finance
  NX+dan ~ ko'r- suffer loss, damage in X
  U savdodan ziyon ko'rdi.
  He suffered a loss in trade.
  NX+dan ~ tort- suffer loss, damage in X
  ziyon keltir- cause damage
  ziyon tort- sustain loss (in business)
  NX+dan ziyon qil- suffer loss, damage in X
ziyonli adj harmful, detrimental
ziyonsiz adj harmless
TALAFOT n loss, damage, harm  
  talafot ko'r- suffer loss, damage
FIDO n sacrifice  
  fido qil-/et- sacrifice oneself
fidokor adj devoted
fidokorlik n self-sacrifice, abnegation
QURBON n sacrifice, offerings Victory & Defeat
Religion
    victime, martyr
  qurbon bo'l- sacrifice oneself, be sacrificed
  U ozodlik yo'lida qurbon bo'ldi.
  He sacrificed himself for freedom.
  NX+ni NY uchun qurbon qil- sacrifice X for Y
  O'z hayotini vatan ozodligi uchun qurbon qildi.
  He has sacrificed his life for the freedom of his native land.
  U hayvonni qurbon qildik.
  We sacrificed that animal.
       
BUNYOD bunyod bo'l- appear, be created Entities & Events
  bunyod qil- make appear, create
bunyodkor n creator
bunyodkorlik n creation
YARAT- v.t create, compose, produce; write (literature)  
  Bu yozuvchi qishloq hayoti haqida roman yaratdi.
  This writer has written a novel about the village life.
  Bu asarni u yaratdi.
  He created this work.
yaratil- v.int be created, be composed, be produced
yaratuvchi n creator, composer
IJOD n creation, invention  
  ijod et-/qil- create, invent
  Fizika olimlari atom bombasini ijod qildilar.
  Physicists created the atom bomb.
ijodiy adj creative, inventive
ijodiyot n creation
ijodkor n creator, inventor
ijodkorlik n creativeness, inventiveness
IXTIRO n invention  
  ixtiro qil-/et- invent
ixtirochi n inventor
YASA- v.t make, construct Characteristics
yasama adj man-made, artificial, false
QUR- v.t build, construct (l/f) Order & Composition
Buildings & Works
Industry
  U uy qurmoqda.
  He is building a house.
  qayta qur- rebuild, reconstruct
quril- v.int be built, in construction
  v.int | NX+dan ~ be constituted, composed, made up of X
qurilish n building, construction (l/f)
quruvchi n builder, constructor (l/f)
rivojlantir- v.t develop; foster, promote Evolution
  O'zbekiston xalqlari qo'shni mamlakatlar xalqlari bilan o'z madaniy aloqalarini rivojlantirmoqdalar.
  The people of Uzbekistan promotes its cultural relations with the peoples of neighbouring countries.
OBOD
/ OBODON
adj prosperous, flourishing Wealth
  obod qil- develop, make prosperous
obodonlik n development
obodlashtir- v.t develop
obodonchilik n development
TUZ- v.t draw up, form, make, construct Order & Composition
  U gapni noto'g'ri tuzgan.
  He constructed the sentence wrongly.
  Davlat tuzish uchun kurashamiz.
  We are fighting to form a government.
  Ish planini tuzish kerak.
  A plan of work must be drawn up.
       
NAMUNA n, adj model, example Copy & Adaptation
Social Symbols
  NX+ga ~ bo'l- be an example to X
  Tashkilot a'zolari boshqalarga namuna bo'lishlari kerak.
  Members of an organization must be an example to others.
  NX+dan ~ ol- take X as an example
  Undan namuna oling!
  Follow his example!
namunali adj model, exemplary
O'RNAK n example, model Copy & Adaptation
  NX uchun ~ model, example for X
  Bu o'quvchi hamma uchun o'rnakdir.
  This pupil is a good example for all.
  Bu talaba boshqalarga nisbatan o'rnak bo'ldi.
  This student was an example to the others.
  NX+ga ~ bo'l- be a model, an example for X
  Boshqalarga o'rnak bo'ling.
  Be a model for others.
IBRAT n | NX+dan ~ ol- take X as an example, learn from X  
o'xshat- v.int | NX+ga ~ imitate X Identity & Difference
TAQLID n copy, imitation Copy & Adaptation
  NX+ga taqlid qil- copy X, imitate X
  Bu bola hayvonlar ovoziga ustalik bilan taqlid qiladi.
  This boy imitates skillfully the voices of animals.
taqlidiy adj imitative
taqlidchi n imitator
O'RIN
(o'rn+i)
NX+ning o'rn+ida in X's place Administration
Housing
Location
Tools & Furnitures
Change
Necessity
     
     
     
     
     
TUT- v.t hold, keep (l/f) Prehension
Location
    maintain, preserve
SAQLA- v.t keep, guard, safeguard, take care of Attention
  Bu kitobni saqlab qo'ying!
  Take care of this book please!
  Soqchilarimiz chegarani saqlamoqdalar.
  Our guards are guarding the frontiers.
    keep, observe (rules)
  v.t | NX+dan ~ save, preserve, protect from X
  NX+ning jon+ini ~ save X's life
  NX+ni NY+dan ~+b qol- save X from Y, preserve X from Y
  U mening hayotimni saqlab qoldi.
  He has saved me the life.
  Uni xavfdan saqlab qoldim.
  I saved him from danger.
saqlan- v.int be saved, preserved, kept
  Oziq-ovqat mahsulotlari sovuq joyda saqlanadi.
  The food products are kept in a cold place.
  Bu yaxshi saqlangan narsa.
  This is a well-kept article.
  v.int | N(ish)X+dan ~ take precautions, guard against X, beware of X
  Har kim shamollashdan saqlanishi kerak.
  Everyone has to beware of chill.
  Bu odamdan saqlaning.
  Beware of this man.
HIMOYA n protection, defence, support Fighting
  U Fransiyaning himoyasi ostida.
  He is under the protection of France.
  NX+ni NY+dan himoya qil- protect, defend X from Y, support X against Y
  NX+ni himoya qil- protect X, guarantee X
  Ijtimoiy tartibimiz erkaklar bilan xotin-qizlar o'rtasidagi teng huquqlilikni himoya qiladi.
  Our social system guarantees the equality of man and woman.
himoyasiz adj defenceless, helpless
QUTQAR- v.t | NX+ni NY+dan ~ save, preserve, rescue, deliver X from Y  
  Askar bolani o't ichidan qutqarib olib chiqdi.
  The soldier have saved a child from the fire.
  Cho'ldagi quduq jonni qutqaradi.
  A well in the desert saves lives.
  qutqarib qol- save, preserve (life,...)
qutqaruvchi n saviour; rescuer
OMON adj safe, unharmed  
  omon bo'l- be safe, unharmed
omonlik n safety
omonsiz adj with no safety
BOSHPANA n shelter, refuge (l/f) Urbanism
TUZA- v.t arrange, decorate, adorn Tools & Furnitures
Health
Fabrics & Sewing
  U uyni tuzayapti.
  She is redecorating the house.
tuzal- v.int recover (from an illness)
    get better; be mended, be repaired
  Avtomobilingiz tuzaldimi?
  Has your car been repaired?
tuzat- v.t arrange, tidy
    repair, mend, fix
  Uning o'zi velosipedni tuzatib oldi.
  He has repaired the bicycle himself.
  Radiosini tuzatyapti.
  He is repairing his radio.
    correct
  Men hamma xatolarni tuzatdim.
  I have corrected all the mistakes.
  Bu yozuvdagi xatolarni tuzatish kerak.
  The mistakes in this letter must be corrected.
tuzatish n proof(s), correction(s)
  Bosmaxonadan kelgan tuzatishni ko'rib chiqdim.
  I looked through the proofs from the printers.
  NX+ni qaytadan tuzat- alter
  Ayol o'z ko'ylagini qaytadan tuzatdi.
  The woman has altered her dress.
  NX+ni qaytadan ishla- rework, alter  
  Rejissyor romanni qaytadan ishlab, ssenariy yozdi.
  The producer has altered the novel to a screen version.
REMONT n repair(s), maintenance  
  remont qil- repair, mend, fix
TA'MIR n repair(s), mending, reconstruction, restoring  
ta'mirla- v.t repair, mend, reconstruct, restore
to'g'rila- v.t correct, put right Truth
  v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ tune X to Y, turn in X to Y
  Siz priyomnikni qisqa to'lqinga to'g'riladingizmi?
  Have you turned in the radio to the short waves?
tikla- v.t restore  
  NX+ning o'rn+ini qopla- take up for X  
  Men bekor o'tgan vaqtning o'rnini qoplashim kerak.
  I must take up for the lost time.
  NX+ning o'rn+ini to'ldir- make up for X
  Sen bekor ketgan vaqtning o'rnini to'ldirishing kerak.
  You must make up for the time.
mukammallashtir- v.t perfect Value
       
  ishdan chiq- be out of order  
  NX+ni ishdan chiqar- damage, upset X
  Bunchalik ko'p muzqaymoq yema, bo'lmasa qozonni ishdan chiqarasan.
  Don't eat so much ice, or you will upset your stomach.
YO'QOT- v.t lose Exchange
    eliminate, abolish, put to an end
yo'qotil- v.int be eliminated, be abolished
  NX+ni yo'q qil- destroy, annihilate X, wipe X out  
  O't o'rmonning ko'p qismini yo'q qildi.
  The fire has destroyed the greater part of the forest.
  U pulni yo'q qildi.
  He squandered the money.
  yo'q qilib tashla- destroy, annihilate, wipe out
tozala- v.t | NX+ni NY+dan ~ clean X from Y (l/f) Housework
  Men o'z kiyimimni loydan tozaladim.
  I cleared my dress from grime.
  Soldatlar o'rmonni dushmandan tozaladilar.
  The soldiers cleared the forest from the enemy.
YEMIR- v.t destroy, smash, erode  
yemiril- v.int be destroyed, smashed, eroded
yemiruvchi n destroyer
BUZ- v.t break, destroy, demolish, ruin Processes
Criminality
Emotions
  Bu eski uyni buzaman.
  I will demolish the old house.
    spoil, corrupt
buzil- v.int be broken, destroyed, ruined, out of order
    be spoilt, corrupted
YAKSON yakson bo'l- get destroyed  
  yakson qil- destroy, devastate, ruin
VAYRON adj destroyed, devastated  
  vayron bo'l- get destroyed, devastated
  Urush vaqtida ko'p shaharlar vayron bo'ldi.
  During the war, many cities were destroyed.
  vayron qil- destroy, devastate, ruin
  Askarlar shaharni vayron qildilar.
  Soldiers destroyed the city.
  U ko'nglini vayron qildi.
  He broke her heart.
vayrona n ruins
vayronalik n destruction, devastation, ruin
XONAVAYRON adj ruined, destroyed
  xonavayron bo'l- be ruined, destroyed
  xonavayron qil- ruin, destroy
XAROB adj ruined, collapsed, destroyed Urbanism
  xarob bo'l- get ruined, destroyed, damaged
  xarob qil- ruin, destroy, damage
xaroba n ruins
xaroblik n destruction, devastation
xaroblash- v.int get ruined, destroyed
MAHV mahv (bo'l-) (get) annihilated, eliminated, destroyed  
  mahv et-/qil- annihilate, eliminate, destroy
BARHAM NX+ga barham ber- eliminate X, put an end to X  
  Vaqtni to'g'ri taqsimlash vaqt yetishmaligika barham beradi.
  The correct distribution of time eliminates the shortage of time.
SHIKAST adj damaged, broken, injured, hurt Health
shikastla- v.t damage, break, injure
  NX+ning jon+iga teg- nag X, bother X, annoy X, get X in trouble, tire X Emotions
  O'yin bolaning joniga tegdi va u kitob o'qiyotgan opasining yoniga bordi.
  The child was tired of playing and went to his sister who was reading a book.
       
VAZIFA n task, mission, responsability  
  U kotiblik vazifasida ishlaydi.
  She is working as a clerk.
    assignment
  Bu vazifaning muddatini uzaytirish kerak.
  The term of this assignment must be extended.
  N(ish)X ~+si responsability of X
  ~ topshir- give a task, the responsability
  Bu uyning qurush vazifasini sizga topshiraman.
  I give you the responsability of building this house.
  ~ ber- give a task, the responsability
  U vaqtda bu vazifani menga beringiz!
  In that case give me the task!
TOPSHIR- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ hand over, deliver X to Y Exchange
    entrust, charge Y with X, trust, assign X to Y
  O'qituvchi unga muhim vazifani topshirdi.
  The teacher charged him with an important mission.
  Bu ishni qilish sizga topshirildi.
  You are entrusted to do this mission.
topshiriq n task, mission
yukla- v.t | N(ish)X+ni NY+ga ~ entrust Y with X Appliances
Prehension
  Hukumat memorandum topshirishni o'z elchisi zimmasiga yuklagan.
  The government entrusted his ambassador with the handling of the memorandum.
KOMANDIROVKA n mission  
  komandirovkaga bor- go on a mission, an assignment
javobgar adj | NX uchun / NX+ga ~ responsible for X Justice
  U ish uchun javobgar.
  He is responsible for the work.
  U ishchilar uchun javobgar.
  He is responsible for the workers.
  Men bu ishga javobgarman.
  I am responsible for this.
    guilty
javobgarlik n | NX uchun ~ responsibility for X
  U uchun javobgarlik mening zimmamga yuklangan.
  The responsibility for him rests with me.
MAS'UL n person in charge Organizations
  adj responsible
mas'uliyat n | N(ish)X ~+i responsibility of X
  Idorani boshqarish mas'uliyati mening ustimda.
  The responsability of running the office lies with me.
mas'uliyatli adj of responsibility
mas'uliyatsiz adj without responsibility
mas'uliyatsizlik n irresponsibility
ZIMMA n responsability, charge  
  NX+ni NY+ning ~+siga yukla- put Y in charge of X
  N(ish)X+ni NY+ga havola qil- charge Y to X, entrust Y with X  
  NX+ga havola qil- direct to X; appeal to X
  Hukumat jamoatchilik fikriga havola qildi.
  The government appealed to the public opinion.
  NX+ning vazifa+sini vaqtincha bajar- act for X  
  Sizning boshlig'ingiz vazifasini hozir vaqtincha kim bajaryapti?
  Who acts for your chief at the time?
  NX+ni NY+ga jalb et-/qil- enlist X to Y Emotions
  Men uni bu ishga jalb etaman.
  I will enlist him in this work.
kelish- v.int | NX+ga ~ agree, reach an agreement on X Copy & Adaptation
Horizontal Motion
Agreement
  Ular bilan kelishish mumkin emas.
  It is not possible to come to any agreement with them.
  NX bilan N(ish)Y to'g'risida ~ agree, make arrangements with X about Y
  U o'z do'stlari bilan Chimyonga borish to'g'risida kelishdi.
  He made arrangements with his friends about a trip to Chimyon.
  NX bilan N(ish)Y haqida ~+ib ol- agree, make arrangements with X about Y
  Men sizlar bilan bu haqda kelishib olishim kerak.
  I have to make arrangements with you about it.
  NX+ni ~+ib ol- agree on X, coordinate X
  Siz yo'lga chiqish kuningizni kelishib oldingizmi?
  Have you already coordinated the date of your departure?
QATNASH- v.int | NX+ga ~ take part, participate in X, attend, join in X Gatherings
  Bugungi yig'ilishga qatnashasizmi?
  Are you going to attend today's meeting?
  v.int | NX+da ~ attend X, be present at X
  Ko'p o'quvchilar internasional do'stlik mitingida qatnashdilar.
  Many pupils were present at the meeting of international friendship.
  qatnashish participation
qatnashchi n participant
qatnashuv n | NX+da ~ participation, attendance at X
  Uning munozarada qatnashuvi zarur edi.
  His participation in the discussion was necessary.
qatnashuvchi n participant
ISHTIROK n | N(ish)X+da ~ participation, attendance to X Gatherings
  Bizning birgalashib qilayotgan ishimizda uning ishtiroki haqiqatan ham katta bo'ldi.
  His participation in our teamwork was really big.
  Maktab mudirlari va o'qituvchilarning ishtirokida yig'ilish bo'ldi.
  There was a meeting attended by head teachers and school teachers.
  N(ish)X+da ishtirok et-/qil- participate to X, attend X
  Kechagi yig'ilishga o'n kishi ishtirok etdi.
  Ten people attended yesterday's meeting.
ishtirokchi n participant
DAVOMAT n presence, attendance  
  NX+ga kelmay qol- miss X, not come to X  
  Darslarga kelmay qolmanglar!
  Don't miss the lessons!
  NX+ga quloq qoq- respond to X, react to X  
  U quloq qoqmadi.
  He did not respond.
javoban adv | NX+ga ~ in answer/response to X Informing
ARALASH- v.int | NX+ga ~ get mixed up with X Identity & Difference
    take part in X, interfere in X, meddle with X
  Har ikkala davlat bir-birlarining ichki ishlariga aralashmaslikni o'z zimmasiga oldi.
  Both countries pledged themselves not to interfere in the domestic affairs of each other.
  Birovning ishiga aralashma!
  Mind your own business!
  Bu ishga aralashma!
  Don't interfere in this matter.
  oraga chiq- not interfere  
  oraga kir- interfere, bother about
  Siz oraga kirmang!
  Don't interfere!
  NX+ga kun berma- bother X, not leave X in peace  
  U menga kun bermadi.
  He doesn't give me any space.
  chetda qol- keep out of things, stay on the sidelines Opportunity
  (o'z+ini) chetga tort- keep out of things, stay on the sidelines
  NX+dan o'z+ini chetga tort- dissociate from X
  Sen bu odamlardan o'zingni chetga tortishing kerak.
  You must dissociate from this people.
YORDAM n help, assistance Medicine
Interest
Occupations
  U yordamga muhtoj.
  He needs help.
  NX+ga N(ish)Y+da ~ ber- help X in Y, with Y
  O'g'il otasiga ishda yordam berdi.
  The son helped the father with the work.
  Unga yordam bering.
  Please help him.
  NX+ga ~ ko'rsat- give help to X, render assistance to X
  tez yordam first aid
  NX+ga NY+dan yordam qil- help X out with Y
  Siz menga benzindan yordam qila olmaysizmi?
  Can you help me out with petrol?
yordamsiz adj helpless
yordamlash- v.t | NX+ni N(ish)Y+ga ~ help X in Y
yordamchi n helper
    assistant, auxiliary
KO'MAK n help, assistance Occupations
ko'maklash- v.int help, assist
  o'zara ko'maklash- help, assist each other
ko'makchi n helper
    assistant
MADAD n help, assistance  
  NX+ga ~ ber- help X, assist X
HASHAR n mutual help, collective work Work
DOD dod sol- call for help Criticism
Justice
  U dod solyapti.
  He is calling for help.
  int | dod! help!
  Dod, qorovul yordam bering!
  Help, police, help me!
va'dalash- v.int | NX bilan NY haqida ~ arrange with X for Y Honesty
  Men Viktor bilan uchrashuv haqida va'dalashib oldim.
  I have arranged with Victor for a meeting.
  NX+ga qo'shilgan hissa contribution to X  
  Hukumatimizning qurolsizlanish bo'yicha takliflari tinchlikni saqlash ishiga qo'shilgan muhim hissadir.
  The suggestions of our government for disarmament are a valuable contribution to the preservation of peace.
SHERIK n partner Social Life
    friend, comrade, companion
  NX+ga ~ bo'l- be partner with X
sheriklash- v.int cooperate
sherikchilik n partnership
    good-companionship
HAMKOR n collaborator Work
  U gazetamizning hamkori.
  He is a collaborator on our paper.
hamkorlik n cooperation
  NY bo'yicha NX bilan hamkorlik qil- cooperate with X in Y
  O'zbekiston hayotning barcha sohalari bo'yicha qo'shni davlatlar bilan yaqindan hamkorlik qiladi.
  Uzbekistan collaborates with the neighbouring countries in all spheres of life.
SAFARBAR adj mobilized  
  safarbar qil- mobilize
safarbarlik n mobilization
TARAF n side (one of two opposite sides) Distance
    side, party
  NX+ning ~+idan on behalf of X
betaraf adj neutral, abstainer
betaraflik n neutrality, abstention, non-participation
tarafdor n supporter, partisan, (be) seconding
  O'zbekiston umumiy va yalpi qurolsizlanish tarafdoridir.
  Uzbekistan seconds a universal and absolute disarmament.
NOM NX+ning nom+idan on behalf on X Language
  NX+ga yon bos- side with X, support X  
  Karim unga yon bosdi.
  Karim sided with him.
MASLAHAT n advice Occupations
  U maslahatimni qabul qildi.
  He took my advice.
  NY+ga VX+ishni ~ ber- advise X to Y, give X advice to Y
  Men senga shu filmni ko'rishni maslahat beraman.
  I advise you to see this film.
  NY+ga VX+ishni ~ berma- dissuade Y from X
  Bu sayohatga borishni men unga maslahat bermadim.
  I have dissuaded him from this journey.
  CY deb NX+ga ~ ber- advise X to Y
  Texnika bilimini o'rganing deb unga maslahat berdim.
  I advised him to study technology.
  NX+dan ~ so'ra- ask advice from X
  NX bilan maslahat qil- consult X
  Bu maqolani yozuvda uning bilan maslahat qildim.
  I consulted him while writing this article.
  NX+ga maslahat qil- consult X
maslahatlash- v.int | NY haqida NX bilan ~ consult X, ask advice from X about Y
  NY haqida NX bilan ~+ib ol- consult X, ask advice from X about Y
  O'quvchilar bo'lajak yig'ilish haqida o'qituvchilar bilan maslahatlashib oldilar.
  The pupils consulted the teacher about the forthcoming meeting.
maslahatchi n adviser; consultant, counselor
KONSULTANT n consultant Occupations
KONSULTATSIYA n advice, consultation
  NX+dan ~ ol- consult X
  Siz terapevtdan konsultatsiya olishingiz kerak.
  You have to consult a therapeutist.
KENGASH n council, advice Administration
  NX+ga yo'l o'rgat- give X advice  
  Unga yo'l o'rgatdim.
  I gave him some advice.
  yo'ldan chiqar- mislead  
  Uni yo'ldan chiqardim.
  I misled him.
TAVSIYA n recommendation  
  Mening tavsiyamni qabul qiling.
  Accept my recommendation.
  N(ishi)X+ni NY+ga tavsiya et-/qil- recommend Y X, Y to do X, advise Y to do X
  Iltimos, menga bironta qiziq kitobni tavsiya qilsangiz.
  Please recommend me an interesting book.
  Men senga shu kostyumni olishni tavsiya qilaman.
  I advise you to buy this costume.
  Bu kishining ishga olishingizni tavsiya qilaman.
  I recommend you to employ this man.
TAQDIM n recommendation Exchange
  NX+ni NY+ga taqdim et-/qil- recommend X to Y
    offer, present, donate X to Y
NASIHAT n advice, lecture, sermon Criticism
  nasihat qil- advise, sermonize

Circumstances

FURSAT n opportunity, chance  
  Fursatdan foydalanishimiz kerak.
  We must make use of the opportunity.
  fursatdan foydalan- seize the opportunity
TAVAKKAL adv chancing  
  tavakkal qil- take a chance, risk
tavakkalchi n daring person
IMKON NY+ga V(ish)X+ga ~ ber- make X possible to Y, enable X for Y, permit Y to X Ability
Probability
Truth
  Uning sog'ligi unga sportning istagan turi bilan shug'ullanishga imkon beradi.
  His health permits him to indulge in sport.
  V(ish)X+ga ~ ber- make X possible, enable X
  Bu qonun mamlakatning demokratik rivojlana olishiga imkon tug'dirdi.
  This law made possible the democratic development of the country.
imkoniyat n possibility, opportunity
  N(ish)X munosabat+i bilan on the occasion of X  
YO'LAKAY adv on the way  
  yo'l-yo'lakay on the way, unexpectedly
  NX+ning old+ida tur- lie in front of X, be in store for X  
  Bu lavozimda uning oldida ko'p qiyinchiliklar turadi.
  On this position many difficulties are in store for him.
  kezi kelganda some time Time
QOL- v.int | NX+dan ~ lose X(=opportunity, ability) Acceptance & Pardon
Motion
Change
  U ko'zdan qoldi.
  He lost his sight.
  U nazardan qoldi.
  He fell from favour.
PAYT n (opportune) moment Time
  Hozirgi paytdan foydalanishimiz kerak.
  We must make use of the present time.
VAQT n time Time
Necessity
  o'z vaqtida on time, in time
  Bu ishni o'z vaqtida bitirdim.
  I finished this work on time.
vaqtsiz adj untimely
bemahal adj untimely, inopportune  
BAHONA n pretext, excuse  
  Mening bahonam shu.
  My excuse is this.
  N(ish)X ~+sida under the pretext of X
  N(ish)X ~+si bilan under the pretext of X
  Maktabga borish bahonasi bilan, kinoga ketdi.
  He went off to the cinema, pretending he was going to school.
  CX deb bahona qil- pretend X
  Shaharga boraman deb bahona qildim.
  He pretended he was going to town.
VAJ n excuse, reason  
  VX+ishi uchun ~ ko'rsat- make an excuse to
  Men da'vat etilgan yerga bormasligim uchun vaj ko'rsatdim.
  I made an excuse not to go to the place to which I was invited.
  VX+ishi uchun ~ top- find an excuse to
  Men ishga kelmasligim uchun vaj topishim kerak.
  I must find an excuse not to go to work.
vajsiz ad for no reason, arbitrari(ly)
QOCH- v.int | N(ish)X+dan ~ flee X, run away from X Fighting
Motion with
    avoid X
  Bu iboradan qoching.
  Avoid this expression.
  Men u bilan uchrashishdan qochaman.
  I avoid meeting him.
  Men jon deb bu suhbatdan qochgan bo'lar edim.
  I would like to avoid this conversation.
  NX+dan ~+ib ket- escape X, evade X
  NX+dan o'z+ini olib ~ avoid X
  U o'rtoqlaridan, hatto mendan ham o'zini olib qochadi.
  He avoids his friends, even me.
  U bekorga undan o'zini olib qochar edi.
  He avoided for nothing a meeting with her.
qochir- v.t let escape
  NX+ni qo'ldan berib qo'y- miss  
  Sen bu imkoyatni qo'ldan berib qo'yishing mumkin.
  You can miss this opportunity.
  NX+ni qo'ldan qochir- miss X
  Bu fursatni qo'ldan qochirmang!
  Don't miss this opportunity!
  chetda qol- keep out of things, stay on the sidelines Participation
  (o'z+ini) chetga tort- keep out of things, stay on the sidelines
  NX+dan o'z+ini chetga tort- avoid X
  Yozuvchi birorta ham hayotiy masaladan o'zini chetga tortmasligi kerak.
  The writer must not avoid any question.
chetla- chetlab o't- flee; evade, elude Numbers
Horizontal Motion
     
GAROV n pawn, guarantee Business
    bet
  garov bog'lash- bet, wager
  Uning bilan garov bog'lashdim.
  I had a bet with him.
  garov o'yna- bet, wager
  NX yuz+i ko'r- get access to X  
       
BAXT n good fortune, luck, happiness Emotions
  NX+ga ~ kel- X be lucky
  Unga baxt keldi.
  He is lucky.
  NX+ga ~ keltir- bring luck to X
  baxtga qarshi unfortunately
  baxt+i qora unlucky, born unlucky
  U baxti qora odam.
  He is an unfortunate man.
baxtli adj | NX+dan ~ fortunate, lucky, happy at X
  U uning muvaffaqiyatlaridan baxtlidir.
  She's happy at her successes.
baxtsiz adj unfortunate, unlucky, unhappy
baxtsizlik n misfortune, ill luck
badbaxt adj unfortunate, unlucky, unhappy
baxtiyor adj fortunate, lucky, happy (moment, event)
  Bu mamlakatning aholisi baxtiyordir.
  The people of this country is lucky.
OMAD n luck, success  
  omad+i bor be lucky
  omad+i kel- be lucky
  Omadim keldi.
  I am lucky.
  omad+i ket- be unlucky
  Omadim ketdi.
  I am unlucky.
  omadni sinab ko'r- try one's luck
omadli adj lucky
omadsiz adj unlucky
omadsizlik n ill luck
  qo'l+i kel(di)- one's luck's in  
IQBOL n luck, happiness, success  
TOLE
(tole+i)
n luck, fortune, fate Entities & Events
YAXSHIYAMKI adv | ~, CX fortunately, X  
XAYRIYAT adv | ~, CX what a good thing, X  
QUTLUG' adj propitious Solicitude
  Yangi yilingiz qutlug' bo'lsin!
  Happy new year!
SHO'R adj sad, unlucky (fate)  
  peshana+si sho'r unfortunate (sad lot)
BALO n misfortune, disaster, trouble  
  Bir so'z aytib qo'yib, boshim baloga qoldi.
  I said one word and got into trouble for it.
  NX+ga ~ teg- X be struck by misfortune
  Bu odamlarga balo tegdi.
  These people were struck by misfortune.
  baloga uchra- experience misfortune
FALOKAT n ill-fortune, disaster, calamity  
  U falokatga uchradi.
  He suffered ill-fortune.
  falokatga yo'liq- suffer a disaster
falokatli adj unfortunate
MUSIBAT n misfortune, disaster  
  musibat chek- experience misfortune, suffer
  musibat tort- experience misfortune, suffer
musibatli adj unfortunate, painful
OFAT n catastrophe, disaster  
  tabiiy ofat natural disaster
TANGLIK n crisis, difficulties  
KRIZIS n crisis  
keskin adj tense, sharp, fierce (l/f) Forces
keskinlik n sharpness, tension (l/f)
keskinlash- v.int sharpen, aggravate, worsen
keskinlashtir- v.t strain, aggravate, worsen
  Bunday harakatlar xalqaro munosabatlarni keskinlashtiradi.
  Such actions strain the international tension.
ko'ngilsizlik n annoyance, trouble Feelings
  ko'ngilsizliklarga duchor bo'l- be in trouble
DUCHOR NX+ga ~ bo'l- meet with X, suffer X(=ill fortune)  
  duchor qil- bring (ill fortune)
UCHRA- v.int | NX+ga ~ meet X, run into X, hit upon X Visits & Greetings
Health
    experience X(=bad situation), fall ill with X(=illness)
  Bu qishloq aholisi yer qimirlash ofatiga uchradi.
  The inhabitants of this village experienced the misfortune of an earthquake.
  U bola bo'g'ma kasaliga uchradi.
  That child has contracted diphteria.
YO'LIQ- v.int | NX+ga ~ meet X, see X, run into X Visits & Greetings
    experience X(=bad situation, illness)
TUSH- NX+ga ~(+ib qol-) fall in/on/into X(=bad situation) Transport
Vertical Motion
Evolution
  U dilgirlik kayfiyatiga tushib qoldi.
  He felt into a melancholic mood.
  Boshga tushganni ko'z ko'rar.
  We will see what happens.
  U yomon holga tushdi.
  He fell on hard times.
YE- v.t suffer, endure (blow, attack) Food
Vital Functions
  Hasan musht yedi.
  Hasan got a beating.
  Mendan kaltak yeysan!
  I will thrash you!
  achchiq-chuchuk hardship, ups and downs Food
FOJIA n tragedy, tragic situation  
fojiali adj tragic
       
QIYIN adj difficult, complicated, hard Pain
  Bunga erishish menga qiyin bo'ldi.
  It was difficult for me to get it.
  Bu ishni qilish qiyin.
  This work is difficult to do.
qiyinlik n difficulty (degree in)
  NX+ga qiyinlik qil- present problems to X
qiyinlash- v.int get difficult
qiyinlashtir- v.t make difficult
qiyinchilik n difficulty
QIYNA- v.t harass, torture, torment; haunt
OSON adj easy, light, simple  
  Bu oson ish.
  This is light work.
  NX+ga ~ bo'l- come easy to X
  Unga institutda o'qish oson bo'ldi.
  The studies at the institute came easy to him.
osonlik n convenience, easiness
osonlikcha adv easily
OG'IR adj heavy, weighty Density
Seriousness
    difficult, hard
  Dehqonlarning og'ir mehnatini yengillashtirish kerak.
  The heavy labour of farmworkers must be lightened.
  U og'ir hayot kechiradi.
  He has a hard life.
og'irlik n difficulty, burden, hardship
  NX+ga og'irlik qil- be a burden for X
og'irlash- v.int become heavy
    get worse (l/f)
og'irchilik n difficulty, hardness
ZO'R n force, might, strength Forces
  zo'r bilan with all one's might, strenuously
  U zo'r bilan ishlaydi.
  He is working with all his might.
zo'rg'a adv with difficulty, barely enough
  Daryodan zo'rg'a o'tib oldim.
  I crossed the river with great difficulty.
  Yashikni men zo'rg'a ko'taraoldim.
  I was scarcely able to lift the box.
YENGIL adj light (l/f) Density
Anxiety
  Bu kitob og'ir, unisi esa yengil.
  This book is heavy but that one is light.
yengillik n easiness
yengillash- v.int get lighter (l/f)
yengillashtir- v.t lighten, make lighter (l/f)
MUSHKUL adj arduous, difficult, hard  
mushkulot n difficulty, arduousness
mushkullash- v.int get difficult
MASHAQQAT n trouble, difficulty, suffering  
mashaqqatli adj hard, painful
mashaqqatsiz adj without difficulty
ARANG adv with difficulty Will
    reluctantly
  (bir) amallab with great difficulty  
JO'N adj easy, simple  
RAVON ad fluent(ly), smooth(ly) Speach
O'NG'AY adj favourable, easy Anxiety
o'ng'aylik n convenience, easiness
o'ng'aysiz adj unfavourable, uneasy
o'ng'aylash- v.int get easier
QULAY adj convenient, handy, comfortable  
  O'qishga qulay vaqt topmoq.
  Find the right time for studying.
qulaylik n convenience, handiness
  N(ish)X+ga ~ tug'dir- favour X
  Yaxshi ob-havo samolyotimizning tinch uchishishiga qulaylik tug'dirdi.
  The good weather favoured the flight of our plane.
noqulay adj inconvenient
noqulaylik n inconvenience, disadvantage
qulayla- v.t make easier, facilitate
qulaylash- v.int get easier, convenient
SHINAM adj comfortable, cozy, nice Value
       
XAVF n danger, threat Anxiety
  Dunyoda urush xavfi bor.
  There is a threat of war in the world.
  Hech qanday xavf yo'q.
  There is no danger.
  xavf ostida bo'l- be in danger
  xavf ostida qol- be in danger
  NX+ni xavf ostiga qo'y- risk X, put X in danger
  Bolani qutqarishda u o'z hayotini xavf ostiga qo'ydi.
  He risked his life when saving the child.
  xavfdan qoch- escape danger
xavfli adj | NX uchun ~ dangerous to X, perilous
xavfsiz adj safe
xavfsizlik n safety
  xavfsizlikda being safe
xavflan- v.int | NX+dan ~ apprehend X, worry about X
XATAR n danger, hazard  
  xatar ostida (qol-) (be) in danger
  Askarlarimiz xatar ostida qoldilar.
  Our soldiers are in danger.
xatarli adj dangerous, hazardous
bexatar adj safe
  xavf-xatar peril  
TAHLIKA n danger  
  tahlika ostida (qol-) (be) in danger
  Mamlakatning xo'jaligini tahlika ostida.
  The economy of the country is in danger.
  tahlikaga solib qo'y- put in danger
QALTIS adj perilous, risky, dangerous  
qaltislik n peril, risk, danger
qo'rqinchli adj dangerous, perilous Fear

Manner

USUL n | VX+ish ~+i method (of Xing), manner (of X), way of (Xing), procedure Characteristics
  Dars berish usulini o'zgartirish kerak.
  The method of teaching must be changed.
  Mana shu usulda ishlash kerak.
  Work must be done in this way.
    form, style
METOD n method, way  
YO'L n way, road Roads
Utilization
    path
    way, method
USLUB n style, manner Litterature
RAVISH n manner, way Language
  Bu ravishda ishlash kerak.
  Work must be done in this way.
  Unga amaliy ravishda yordam berish kerak.
  He must be helped in a practical way.
SURAT n way, manner Art
Media
  Bu xabarni bizga rasmiy suratda berildi.
  This news was given to us officially.
TARZ n manner, form, way  
YO'SIN n manner, way  
  turmush tarzi way of life  
  yashash ravishi way of life
VOSITA n means, measures, method Utilization
  Bizga ishlab chiqarish vositalari kerak.
  We need the means of production.
vositali adj indirect
vositasiz adj direct
bevosita ad direct(ly)
vositachi n intermediary
vositachilik n | NX+ning ~+ida through the intermediary of X
TADBIR n | NX+ning tadbir+i measure, steps, precaution for X  
  Bu yil paxta terish tadbirlari muvaffaqiyatli amalga oshirildi.
  This year the measures for harvesting of cotton were successfull.
  Boshqaga bir tadbir o'ylab topish kerak.
  Some other way must be found.
  N(ish)X uchun ~ ko'r- take steps to X
  Bu ishni qilish uchun qanday tadbirlar ko'rdingizlar?
  What steps have you taken to do this work?
tadbirli adj methodical
SHAKL n form, shape Characteristics
Shapes
    manner, way
  Mana shu shaklda ishlash kerak.
  Work must be done in this way.
ILOJ n | N(ish)X+ga ~ means, way, possibility of X  
  Uning bundan boshqa ishni qilishga iloji yo'q.
  He has no possibility of doing other work than this.
  iloj+i yo'q have no way out, can't help it
  iloji boricha AX+roq as X as possible
  iloj top- think of a way, find a solution
ilojsiz adj beyond remedy, without solution
    having no way out
CHORA n | N(ish)X+ga ~ way, means of X Punishment
  Bu mashinani tuzatishga hech qanaday chora yo'q.
  There is no way at all of repairing this machine.
    action, measures
  chora+si yo'q can't help it
  chora top- think of a way, find a solution
  chora ko'r- take measures
  Dushmanlarga qarshi chora ko'rish kerak.
  Measures must be taken against the enemy.
chorasiz adj having no way out
    beyond remedy, without solution
       
BILAN post | NX ~ with X, by means of X, and X Identity & Difference
  Choyni qand bilan ichaman.
  I take tea with sugar.
  Qalam bilan yozaman.
  I will write with a pencil.
  U men bilan birga keldi.
  He came together with me.
  Uchquch bilan keldim.
  I came by plane.
  Yo'l bilan yur!
  Go by the highway!
ORQALI post | NX ~ by means of X, through X, via X  
  Radio orqali eshitirmoq.
  To broadcast over the radio.
  Samarqandga poyezd orqali keldim.
  I came to Samarkand by train.
  Uning bilan telefon orqali so'zlashdim.
  I spoke him on the phone.
VOSITA NX+ning vositasi bilan by means of X Method
  Sizning vositangiz bilan bu uyni topdim.
  I found this house through you.
YO'L NX+ning yo'li bilan by means of X Method
Roads
     
bo'yicha post | NX ~ throughout X, all over X, all along X Evolution
Position
    in accordance with X, in connection with X
  Bu ishni qonun bo'yicha qildim.
  I did this in accordance with the law.
  post | N(gani)X ~ ever since X
asosan adv in principle, basically Importance
  post | NX+ga ~ in accordance with X, according to X
  Maktubingizga asosan bu yerga keldim.
  I came in accordance with your letter.
BINOAN post | NX+ga ~ in accordance with X, in consequence of X Circumstance & Causality
yuzasidan post | NX ~ in accordance with X  
YARASHA post | NX+ga ~ according to X, corresponding to X  
QAROR NX asosida ~ top- rest on X Will
  Mamlakatimizda savdo-sotiq o'zaro manfaatdorlik prinsiplari asosida qaror topgan.
  The trade between our countries rests on the principle of mutual benefits.
QARA- v.int | NX+ga ~ look at X, watch X, gaze at X; glance at X Vision
Reflection
Attention
Identity & Difference
Behaviour
Position
Identity & Difference
Opinion
qarab post | NX+ga ~ in accordance with X
qaramasdan post | N(ishi)X+ga ~ although X, notwithstanding X
qaramay post | N(ishi)X+ga ~ although X, notwithstanding X
qaraganda post | NX+ga ~ in comparison with X
  post | N(ishi)X+ga ~ considering X
     
     
KO'RA post | N(ish)X+ga ~ in accordance with X, according to X, because of X Opinion
Identity & Difference
  U odamning aytishiga ko'ra, yig'ilishga besh kishi kelgan.
  According to this man, only five people came to the meeting.
foydalan- v.int | NX+dan (N(ish)Y uchun) ~ take advantage of X, use, make use of X, utilize X (for Y), handle X Interest
  Uyni yig'ishtirish vaqtida bir changyutgichdan foydalanamiz.
  During the cleaning we make use of a vacuum cleaner.
  Sen termometrdan ehtiyotlik bilan foydalanishing kerak.
  You must handle the thermometer carefully.
  Men bo'sh vaqtimdan o'qish uchun foydalanaman.
  I use my free time for reading.
ishlat- v.t use, utilize, employ Action
ishlatil- v.int be used, utilized, employed
qo'lla- v.t use, utilize, employ, adopt Appraisal
  Bu yangi iborani u noto'g'ri qo'lladi.
  He has used this new expression wrongly.
  To'g'ri ko'makchi fe'lni qo'llang.
  Use it with the right auxiliary.
qo'llan- v.int be used, utilized, employed, adopted
qo'llanma n instruction(s), guide
ISTE'MOL n use; consumption Business
Criminality
  Keng iste'mol mollari yetishmaydi.
  Consumer goods are in short supply.
  iste'mol qil- make use of; consume
  Kitobingizni iste'mol qildim.
  I made use of your book.
SUIISTE'MOL n misuse, use wrongly, abuse
  NX+dan suiiste'mol qil- misuse X, use X wrongly
TATBIQ n use, implementation  
  tatbiq et-/qil- apply, employ, adopt
TUGA- v.int use up, run out, exhaust Evolution
  Do'konda sotilib turgan non negadir tez tugadi.
  In the shop where it was being sold, somehow the bread ran out quickly.
tugalla- v.t use up, finish off
SARF n expenses; expenditure, spending Business
  Sarfim ko'p.
  I have many expenses.
  NX+ni NY+ga sarf qil- spend X for Y; use X for Y
  Motor 100 kilometrga 8 litr benzin sarf qiladi.
  The engine uses 8 liters for 100 kilometers.
  Bu lug'atni tuzish uchun ko'p vaqt sarf qilindi.
  A great deal of time was spent in compiling this dictionary.
  Ko'p pul sarf qilmang!
  Don't spend a lot of money!
sarfiyat n loss, wastage, expense
sarfla- v.t | NX+ni N(ish)Y+ga ~ spend X on Y, expend X on Y, allocate X for Y
  O'zbekiston hukumati xalq ta'limiga katta mablag' sarflaydi.
  The government of Uzbekistan allocates large sums of money for education.
  Men kitob o'qishga ko'p vaqt sarflayman.
  I spend a lot of time on reading.
  U bu ishga ko'p kuch sarfladi.
  He expended much strength on this work.
  bekorga sarfla- waste
  Kelinglar, o'z ish vaqtimizni bekorga sarflamaylik.
  Let us not waste our working time.
ISROF n wasting, squandering
  isrof qil- waste, squander
  Pulni o'rinsiz isrof qilmang!
  Don't waste money!
isrofgar n waster, squanderer
isrofgarchilik n wasting, squandering
ZOYE adv in vain, at a loss Action
  zoye bo'l- be in vain, be wasted
  Qilgan ishimiz zoye bo'ldi.
  Our work was in vain.
  zoye ket- be in vain, be wasted
  zoye qil- waste, squander
  U pulini zoye qildi.
  He wasted his money.
YARA- v.int | NX+ga ~ be useful, helpful for X Copy & Adaptation
Value
  yaramas of no use, useless
yaroqli adj | NX+ga ~ well-suited, suitable; useful for X
yaroqsiz adj unsuitable; of no use, useless
taqsimla- v.t regulate, order X(=time) Whole & Parts
Exchange
  Siz o'z vaqtingizni to'g'ri taqsimlay olasizmi?
  Can you correctly regulate your time?
  U o'z ish kunini qat'iy taqsimlab oladi.
  He orders strictly his working day.
XIZMAT NX+ga ~ ko'rsat- serve X, render service to X Work
  Styuardessa yo'lovchilarga xizmat ko'rsatadi.
  The stewardess serves the passengers.
  NX+ga xizmat qil- serve X
  Bu bitim mudofaa maqsadlariga xizmat qiladi.
  The pact serves defensive purposes.
AYA- v.t spare, pity Pity
Business
    use sparingly, make best use of
tayan- v.int | NX+ga ~ lean on/against X Solicitude
Forces
    rely on X, rest on X
  Hozirgi zamon diagnostikasi psixologiyadagi eng yangi bilimlarga tayanadi.
  Modern diagnostics rest on the latest knowledge in psychology.
       
CHIQ- v.int go out, exit Motion
Horizontal Motion
Vertical Motion
Entities & Events
Transport
Appraisal
  v.int | VX+ib ~ do X thoroughly
  Bosmaxonadan kelgan korrekturani ko'rib chiqdim.
  I looked through the proofs from the printers.
  Men hozir qo'shinmiznikidan choy ichib chiqdim.
  I have already had tea at our neighbours.
  Tun bo'yi yig'lab chiqdi.
  He cried all night.
beril- v.int | N(ish)X+ga ~ devote o.s. to X Exchange
Honesty
  berilgan devoted, loyal, staunch
  U tashkilotimizga berilgan kishi.
  He is a man devoted to our organization.
IXLOS n devotion, dedication, sincere feeling Honesty
JONKUYAR adj devoted, dedicated Honesty
jonkuyarlik n devotion, dedication
chuqurlash- v.int deepen (l/f) Size
chuqurlashtir- v.t deepen (l/f)
ASTOYDIL adv diligently, conscientiously, wholeheartedly  
  jon ber- give one's life Spirit
    do wholeheartedly
  U jon berib ishlaydi.
  He works wholeheartedly.
  jon-tan bilan with all one's heart  
hayvonlarcha adj like beasts of burden  
atroflicha n in detail, thoroughly  
yuzaki ad superficial(ly) (l/f) Shapes
  Bu lug'atni yozishda yuzaki ish qilish mumkin emas.
  It is impossible to work superficially when compiling this dictionary.
  yarim-yorti (only) half, anyhow, haphazardly  
  Yarim-yorti ish qilmang!
  Don't do it just anyhow!
betayin adj unclear, imprecise, vague Truth
    untidy, muddle-headed
betayinlik n imprecision, vagueness
    untidiness
shaxsan adv personally Persons
YAQIN yaqindan directly, intimately Whole & Parts
Distance
Time
Social Life
     
     
     
       
DIQQAT n attention, care, caution Anxiety
  diqqat! attention! / look out!
  diqqat bilan carefully, attentively
  Brigadir ish paytida unga diqqat bilan qarab turdi.
  The brigade-ender observed him working for a long time.
  U g'ildiraklarning taqillashiga diqqat bilan quloq soldi.
  He listened for the rumble of the weels.
  N(gani)X uchun ~ bo'l- be worried, anxious about X
  diqqat qil- pay attention to, be careful with
  NX+ning diqqat+ini NY+ga jalb et-/qil- draw X's attention to Y, have X pay attention to Y, have X concentrate on X
  Men sening diqqatingni shu faktga jalb etmoqchiman.
  I want to draw your attention to this fact.
  Notiq majlisga qatnashganlarning diqqatini o'ziga jalb etdi.
  The orator caught the attention of those attending the meeting.
diqqatsiz adj inattentive, careless
diqqatsizlik n inattention, carelessness
E'TIBOR n attention Authority
    authority
  NX+ga ~ ber- pay attention to X, give consideration for X
  Uning o'g'li adabiyot fanini o'rganadi, u ayniqsa rus adabiyotiga ko'p e'tibor beradi.
  Her son is studying literature, he gives consideration especially for the Russian literature.
  O'z talaffuzingizga e'tibor bering.
  Pay attention to your pronunciation.
  Do'stingiz bu masalaga juda oz e'tibor berdi.
  Your friend paid very little attention to this problem.
  NX+ni e'tiborga ol- take X into consideration, take into account X, regard X
  Radioeshittirish tinglovchilarning istaklarini e'tiborga oladi.
  The broadcasting takes into account the wishes of hearers.
  Siz yana bir holatni e'tiborga olishingiz kerak.
  You must take into account of one more argument.
  e'tibor bilan attentively
  NX+ning e'tibor+ini NY+ga jalb et- draw X's attention on Y
  Maqola gazetaxonlar e'tiborini konchilarning hozirgi ahvoliga jalb etdi.
  The article drew the reader's attention on todays living conditions of the miners.
e'tiborsiz adj inattentive
  NX+ga ~ qara- pay no attention to X, be deaf to X, neglect, ignore X
  Men qora ishga e'tiborsiz qaramayman.
  I don't ignore dirty work.
  U barcha iltimoslarga e'tiborsiz qaradi.
  He was deaf to all requests.
e'tiborsizlik n inattention, carelessness
  diqqat-e'tibor attention, seeing and hearing  
hisoblash- v.int | NX bilan ~ take X into consideration Business
Finance
  Sen doimo sharoit bilan hisoblashishing kerak.
  You must always take into consideration the circumstances.
EHTIYOT n care, caution, safeguard  
  Ehtiyot urug'ligini keltiring!
  Bring me the reserve supply of seeds!
  NX+dan ~ bo'l- be careful, cautious, prudent with X
  Bu itdan ehtiyot bo'l!
  Beware of the dog!
  ehtiyotdan as a precaution
  NX+ni ehtiyot qil- take care of X, treat X with care, caution
  Ona o'g'liga dedi: "Sen o'z kiyimingni ehtiyot qilishing kerak."
  The mother said to her son: "You should take care of your clothes".
  Bu kitoblarni ehtiyot qilib saqla!
  Look after these books with care!
    set aside, reserve
  Mening ehtiyot qilingan pulim bor.
  I have some money in reserve.
ehtiyotsiz ad not paying attention, careless(ly), imprudent
ehtiyotsizlik n inattention, carelessness
ehtiyotla- v.t guard, take care of
ehtiyotlan- v.int guard against, protect o.s. of
ehtiyotkor adj careful, cautious, prudent, circumspect
ehtiyotkorlik n precaution, care, caution
ehtiyotkorona adv carefully, cautiously, prudently, sparingly
SAQLA- v.t keep, guard, safeguard, take care of Preservation
  Bu kitobni saqlab qo'ying!
  Take care of this book please!
  Soqchilarimiz chegarani saqlamoqdalar.
  Our guards are guarding the frontiers.
saqlan- v.int | N(ish)X+dan ~ take precautions, guard against X, beware of X
  Har kim shamollashdan saqlanishi kerak.
  Everyone has to beware of chill.
  Bu odamdan saqlaning.
  Beware of this man.
PARVO n attention, notice  
  Parvoyimga ham kelmadi.
  I did not pay any attention.
  NX+ga parvo qil- pay attention to X, take notice of X
  Kosimning so'ziga parvo qilmayman.
  I won't pay attention to what Kasim says.
beparvo adj careless, negligent
beparvolik n carelessness, negligence
PARVARISH n care, tending
  parvarish qil- take care of, tend
  Bu bolani parvarish qilish kerak.
  This child must be looked after.
PUXTA adj strong, durable, thick, firm Properties
    thorough, efficient, proper(ly)
  Puxta ish.
  Efficient work.
    careful, prudent, deliberate
  U puxta odam.
  He is a prudent man.
  puxta qil- be careful, be attentive
puxtalik n efficiency
    carefulness
  NX haqida jon kuydir- be concerned with X, care for X, take care of X, treasure X  
  Navbatchi sinfda tartib saqlanishi haqida jon kuydiradi.
  The pupil on duty takes care of the order in the classroom.
ZEHN NX+ga zehn qo'y- pay attention to X Intelligence
  Bu ishga zehn qo'ying!
  Pay attention to this job!
POYLA- v.t guard, watch Undertaking
KUT- v.t wait for Undertaking
Invitation
Surprise
Opinion
    look after, receive, entertain (guests)
  U mehmonlarini yaxshi kutdi.
  He looked after his guests well.
BOQ- v.t take care of, bring up Vision
Vital Functions
Undertaking
Agriculture
  Bola boqish qiyin.
  Bringing up children is difficult.
    feed, pasture
boqim n care, supervision, maintenance
boqimsiz adj uncared-for, abandoned
boquvchi n herder
    watcher, tender
QARA- v.int | NX+ga ~ look after X, take care of X, nurse X Utilization
Vision
Reflection
Identity & Difference
Behaviour
  Qiz o'z onasiga qaradi.
  The daughter nursed her mother.
    treat X
  Qariya yangi tanishiga ishonch bilan qaradi va unga o'z o'g'li haqida gapirib berdi.
  The old man treated trustfully the new acquaintance and told him about his son.
qarash- v.int | NX+ga ~ help X, lend a hand to X
TEJA- v.t save, economize Business
    take care of, care for, look after
unutuvchan adj absent-minded, inattentive Memory
unutuvchanlik n absent-mindedness, inattention
HUSHYOR adj vigilant, attentive, watchful Perception
hushyorlik n vigilance, attention
OGOH adj cautious, careful, watchful, vigilant  
  U odamdan ogoh bo'ling!
  Be careful of that man!
ogohlantir- v.t warn, forewarn, caution, admonish
  v.t | NX+ni N(ish)Y haqida ~+ib qo'y- warn X of Y, forewarn X of Y, caution, admonish X against Y
  Doktor uni o'rnidan turmasligi haqida ogohlantirib qo'ydi.
  The doctor warned him not to get up.
  v.t | NX+ni N(ish)Y+dan ~+ib qo'y- warn X of Y, forewarn X of Y, caution, admonish X against Y
  Uni yaqinlashib kelayotgan xavfdan ogohlantirib qo'y!
  Warn him of the coming danger!
  NX haqida ~+ish warning to X, warning of X, caution against X
  Men kitoblarni qaytarish haqida kutubxonadan ogohlantirish oldim.
  I have received from the library a warning on the necessity of returning the books.
  Dovul haqida ogohlantirish o'z vaqtida keldi.
  The warning of a storm came at the right time.
  ko'r-ko'rona blindly, blindfold  
NAZORAT n control, supervision  
  Ular politsiya nazorati ostida.
  They are under police surveillance.
  nazorat qil- control, supervise
  NX+ni nazorat qilib tur- observe X, control X
  Vrach bemorni nazorat qilib turibdi.
  The doctor observes the sick man.
nazoratchi n controller, inspector, supervisor
KONTROL n control, check, inspection  
REVIZOR n inspector, auditor  
  atrofli ravishda in an all-round way  
OSOYISHTA ad quiet(ly), calm(ly), gentle(ly), careful(ly) Character
  Osoyishta hayot kechirmoq.
  To have a quiet life.
  Tovoqlarni bu yerga osoyishta qo'ying.
  Put the plates down here carefully please.
osoyishtalik n quietness, calmness, gentleness, carefulness
TEKIS ad smooth(ly); level Properties
Shapes
  Bu qog'oz tekis.
  This paper is smooth.
  Bu yer tekis.
  This place is level.
JOY joyida just right, smoothly Housing
Location
     
telbalik n crude and rash action, madness Health
telbalarcha adv madly, crudely and rashly
zo'rlik n violence  
  zo'rlik bilan violently
zo'ravon n brute, violent person
zo'ravonlik n violence, brutality
       
yashirincha adv secretly Reflection
ALDA- v.t | NX+da NY+ni alda- deceive Y with X Criminality
  U to'lov muddatida uni aldadi.
  He deceived her with the term of payment.
  U sizni aldash uchun harakat qildi.
  He tried to deceive you.
  v.t | NX+ni NY+ga alda- cheat X out of Y
  U meni bir dollarga aldadi.
  She cheated me out of one dollar.
aldan- v.int be cheated, be deceived
aldamchi n cheat, swindler, deceiver
  Bu odamdan ehtiyot bo'lish kerak, chunki aldamchidir.
  One must be careful of that man because he is a deceiver.
aldamchilik n trickery, swindle, trap
FIR- v.int | NX+ga ~+ib ber- deceive, fool  
G'IRROM n cheat, cardsharper Honesty
  adj dishonest
g'irromlik n dishonesty, cheating
  g'irromlik qil- cheat
ko'chir- v.t | NX+ni NY+dan ~+ib ol- copy X from Y (writing) Motion
Transfer
Release
Chronology
Language
    crib X from Y
  O'quvchi uy vazifasini o'zining sinfdoshidan ko'chirib oldi.
  The pupil has cribed his classmate's homework
     
YOLG'ON n lie, falsehood Informing
Truth
  Uning so'zi yolg'onga chiqarildi.
  His words proved to be lies.
  NX+ga ~ gapir- lie, tell lies to X
  Bola ota-onasiga yolg'on gapirmaydi.
  The child doesn't lie to his parents.
  yolg'on so'zla- lie, tell lies
NIQOB n guise, cover Finery
  n | NX+ning ~+i under the guise of X
  Do'stlik niqobi ostida.
  Under the guise of friendship.
niqobla- v.t mask, disguise, conceal
TUZOQ n trap  
  NX+ga ~ qo'y- set a trap for X
  Bu qushni tutish uchun unga tuzoq qo'ydim.
  I set a trap to catch this bird.
  tuzoqqa tush- fall into the trap
QOPQON n trap  
HIYLA n cunning, guile, trick, ruse Intelligence
  Uning hiylasiga ishonmang.
  Don't be taken in by his guile.
  NX+ga ~ ishlat- trick, cheat, deceive X
  NX+ga hiyla qil- trick, cheat, deceive X
  U menga nisbatan hiyla qildi.
  He tricked me.
hiylali adj tricky
hiylagar adj sly, cunning
NAYRANG n trick, cunning  
  NX+ga nayrang qil- trick, deceive X
nayrangboz n cheat
  hiyla-nayrang cunning, trick, ruse  
  hiyla-nayrang o't- use cunning
  mug'ombirlik qil- use cunning, pretend Intelligence
MAKKOR adj cunning, deceitful, perfidious  
makkorlik n cunning, deceitfulness, perfidy
makkorona adv cunningly, deceitfully, perfidiously
AYYOR adj crafty, deceitful  
ayyorlik n trickery, slyness, cunning
  ayyorlik qil- use trickery, cheat, deceive
shaytonlik n malice, spite  
  shaytonlik qil- do things maliciously