Matter and Nature


TO'L- | NX+ga ~ be filled with X Whole & Parts
  Uy odamga to'ldi.
  The room filled with people.
to'la adj | NX bilan ~ full of X
  Bu zal odamlar bilan to'p-to'la.
  This hall is completely filled with people.
  To'la huquqqa ega bo'lish uchun ishlamoqdamiz.
  We are working to have full rights.
  adv fully, completely, totally
  to'la numX NY NZ X Y(=container) full of Z
  To'la bir chelak suv.
  A full bucket of water.
  To'la ish kuni.
  Full day's work.
  NX bilan liq to'la completely full of X, jam packed with X
  Xona odamlar bilan liq to'la edi.
  The room was full of people.
to'ldir- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ fill X with Y
  Bochkani suvga to'ldirdi.
  He filled a barrel with water.
  v.t | NX+ni NY bilan ~ fill X with Y, complete X in Y
  Ayol chelakni suv bilan to'ldirdi.
  The woman filled the bucket with water.
  Quyidagi gaplarni o'z so'zingiz bilan to'ldiring.
  Complete the following sentences in your own words.
to'lat- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ fill X with Y
to'liq ad full(y), sufficient(ly), ample, complete(ly)
to'lalik n capacity
to'ldiril- | NX bilan ~ be filled with X
  Stakan suv bilan to'ldirilgan.
  The glass is full of water.
TO'Q adj full, replete Vital Functions
Light & Colors
    dark, rich (colour)
ICH ich+iga ol- contain (l/f) Position
  Bu kitob ko'p qimmatli fikrlarni o'z ichiga olgan.
  This book contains many valuable ideas.
BO'SH adj empty, void Necessity
  Bu sandiq bo'shmi?
  Is this chest empty?
    free (time, people), vacant (space)
bo'shliq n emptiness, space
bo'sha- become empty, be free
  Ishdan soat beshda bo'shayman.
  I finish work at five.
  Zal bo'shadi.
  The hall emptied.
bo'shat- v.t empty, clear
  bo'm-bo'sh completely empty
PUCH adj hollow, empty (l/f)  
puchay- shrink, wither
puchaytir- v.t shrink, wither
OG'IR adj heavy, weighty Difficulty
    difficult, hard
    serious, grave
og'irlik n heaviness, weight
og'irlash- become heavy
    get worse (l/f)
og'irlashtir- v.t make heavy
YENGIL adj light (l/f) Difficulty
  Bu kitob og'ir, unisi esa yengil.
  This book is heavy but that one is light.
  yep-yengil very light
yengillash- get lighter (l/f)
yengillashtir- v.t lighten, make lighter (l/f)
VAZN n weight Character
VAZMIN adj heavy
TORT- v.t | NX+ni (tarozida) ~ weigh X Processes
  Bu unni tarozida tortish kerak.
  This flour must be weighed on the scales.
GRAMM meas gramme  
MILLIGRAMM meas milligram
meas kilogram
  Uzumingizning kilosi necha pul?
  How much is a kilo of your grapes?
SENTNER meas quintal, hundredweight  
TONNA meas ton  
MISQOL meas about 4 grammes  
JISM n body  
  gazsimon jism gas
  qattiq jism solid
  suyuq jism liquid
SUYUQ adj liquid, thin, watery Water & Air
  Bu sho'rva juda ham suyuq bo'lgan.
  This soup was too thin.
suyuqlik n liquid, solution
QUYUQ adj thick (liquid)  
  Quyuq sho'rva ichdik.
  We drank thick soup.
quyuqlash- thicken, get thicker
quyuqlashtir- v.t thicken
ERI- melt, thaw  
  Yog' eridi.
  The butter has melted.
  Suvda erimaydigan bo'yoq.
  Paint that will not dissolve in water.
erit- v.t melt, dissolve
eritma n solution
QAYNA- boil (l/f) Feelings
  Suv qaynadi.
  The water is boiling.
qaynat- v.t boil
qaynoq adj boiling, boiled
bug'lan- evaporate Water & Air
  bug'lanish evaporation
tomchi n, meas drop  
tomchila- drip, dribble
QATRA n, meas drop  
  qatra-qatra drop by drop
KO'PIK n foam, froth, lather  
ko'pikli adj frothy
ko'pikla- froth, foam
pufakcha n bubble  
QALIN adj thick Size
    dense (solid)
QATTIQ adj solid, firm Forces
Whole & Parts
  Qattiq shamol bo'lyapti.
  There is a strong wind.
    hard (l/f)
  Tosh qattiqdir.
  Stones are hard.
qattiqlik n hardness
QOT- harden, get hard  
YUMSHA- turn soft, become mellow Kindness
yumshat- v.t soften
  Bu qattiq nonni yumshating!
  Soften this hard bread!
    ease, soften, pacify
yumshoq adj soft, mild
  Bu yostiq yumshoq.
  This pillow is soft.
    mellow, fresh (bread)
  Yumshoq non yedim.
  I ate fresh bread.
yumshoqlik n softness, mildness
MAYIN adj soft, light  
bo'shash- soften, lose strength Processes
bo'shashtir- v.t soften
O'TKIR adj sharp, cutting Intelligence
  Pichog'im o'tkir.
  My knife is sharp.
    keen, clever, smart, alert
o'tkirlik n sharpness
o'tkirla- v.t sharpen
o'tkirlash- sharpen
O'TMAS adj blunt
PUXTA adj strong, durable, thick, firm Attention
  Puxta arqon.
  Strong rope.
    thorough, efficient, proper(ly)
puxtalik n firmness
puxtalashtir- v.t consolidate
MUSTAHKAM adj strong, firm, solid, consolidated  
  U mustahkam tabiatga ega.
  He has a strong character.
mustahkamla- v.t strengthen, consolidate
mustahkamlan- strengthen, consolidate
MAHKAM adj tight, strong, firm  
mahkamla- v.t tighten, strengthen, consolidate
  Buni yelim bilan mahkamladim.
  I strengthened it with glue.
mahkamlan- tighten, strengthen, consolidate
USTUVOR adj firm, solid, unbreakable  
CHIDA- NX+ga ~+sh ber- bear, stand X Character
  Bemor qattiq og'riqqa chidash berdi.
  The sick man has born poignant pains.
  Bu material katta bosimga chidash bermaydi.
  This material doesn't bear a high pressure.
NOZIK adj fine, delicate, fragile Character
  Bu piyola nozik.
  This cup is fragile.
    refined, sensitive
    delicate, touchy, tricky
noziklik n fineness, fragility, delicacy
noziklash- become fragile, be refined
MO'RT adj delicate, fragile  
mo'rtlik n delicacy, fragility
MULOYIM adj soft, mild, silken Kindness
  Bu qog'oz muloyim.
  This paper is soft.
    gentle, mild, fond
egil- egilmaydigan rigid, stiff Processes
egiluvchan adj flexible, pliable
bukiluvchan adj supple, pliable Processes
cho'ziluvchan adj elastic Processes
TEKIS ad smooth(ly); level Attention
  Bu qog'oz tekis.
  This paper is smooth.
  Bu yer tekis.
  This place is level.
  tep-tekis very smooth
  Bu yer tep-tekis.
  This place is completely level.
SILLIQ adj smooth  
  sip-silliq very smooth
silliqlik n smoothness
silliqla- v.t smooth, polish
silliqlash- get polished
SIRPANCHIQ adj slippery  
SOF adj clean  
  U sof havoda yuryapti.
  He is walking in the fresh air.
soflik n cleanness
tiniq adj clear, limpid, pure  
tiniqlik n clearness, pureness
ZILOL adj limpid, clear, pure  
SHAFFOF adj transparent, limpid, clear  
TOZA adj clean, clear Housework
tozalik n cleanness, clarity, cleanliness
POK adj clean Housework
    pure (l/f)
nopok adj dirty
    impure (l/f)
POKIZA adj clean
    pure (l/f)
QURI- dry, dry off, dry out Weather
  Hol mevalar quridilar.
  The fresh fruits dried up.
  O'rik daraxtlari qurib qoldilar.
  The apricot trees have withered and died.
qurit- v.t dry, wither
quruq adj dry, dried, arid
  Quruq non yedik.
  We ate stale bread.
  Quruq yerlarni sug'orish harakatidamiz.
  We are trying to irrigate the arid land.
    empty, devoid of content
  qup-quruq completely dry, arid
quruqlik n dryness
QURG'OQ adj arid, dry
  qoq-quruq completely dry, arid  
HO'L adj | NX+dan ~ wet, moist, soaked with X  
  Ko'cha yomg'irdan ho'l bo'ldi.
  The street is wet with rain.
  To'yim ho'l bo'ldi.
  My coat got wet.
    fresh (fruits, vegetables)
ho'llik n wetness, humidity
ho'lla- v.t wet
  Karima, iltimos, lattani ho'llab keling.
  Karima, please, wet the duster.
NAM adj damp, moist, humid, wet  
  Bu yer nam.
  This place is damp.
  n dampness, moisture
  Yerga nam tushdi.
  There is dew on the ground.
namlik n humidity, dampness
namla- v.t soak, steep
namlan- get wet, get moist
ZAX adj damp  
  n dampness
zaxla- become damp
SUG'OR- v.t water, irrigate Vital Functions
Water & Air
  Dehqon paxta maydonlarini sug'ormoqda.
  The farm-worker is irrigating the cotton fields.
    give water to
  U molni sug'oryapti.
  He is giving water to the cattle.
sug'oril- be irrigated
  NX+ga suv qo'y- water X
  Men gullarga suv qo'yishim kerak.
  I must water the flowers.
botir- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ sink X into Y, soak X in Y Release
DIM adj stuffy, sultry  
TEMPERATURA n temperature  
  NX+ning ~+i ko'taril- X's temperature rise
  NX+ning ~+i pasay- X's temperature fall
HARORAT n temperature  
  Bugun havoning harorati ko'tarildi.
  Today the temperature has risen.
  Uning harorati 39 daraja.
  His temperature is 39C.
DARAJA meas degree (temperature) Degree
Whole & Parts
  numX daraja issiq X degrees (of temperature)
  numX daraja iliq X degrees (of temperature)
  numX daraja sovuq X degrees below 0
  minus numX daraja X degrees below 0
GRADUS meas degree (angles) Shapes
    degree (temperature)
  Termometr 34 gradus turibdi.
  The thermometer shows 34 degrees.
  numX gradus issiq X degrees (of temperature)
  numX gradus iliq X degrees (of temperature)
  numX gradus sovuq X degrees below 0
  minus numX gradus X degrees below 0
gradusnik n thermometer
ISI- get warm Vital Functions
isin- warm o.s. (up)
isit- v.t | NX+ni (NY+ga) ~ warm X (up to Y), heat X (up)
  Siz suvni 60 gradusgacha isitishingiz kerak.
  You must warm the water up to 60 degrees.
ISSIQ adj hot
  Mamlakatimiz issiqdir.
  Ours is a hot country.
  n heat, hot weather
issiqlik n heat
QIZI- get hot Emotions
  N(ish)X+dan ~+b ket- get hot, heat o.s. from X
  Bolalar yugurishdan qizib ketdilar.
  The children have heated themselves from running.
  Temir qizib ketdi.
  The iron has got hot.
qiziq adj hot, heated, burning
JAZIRAMA adj scorching, burning  
tobla- v.t heat, forge Cooking
ILI- get warm Honesty
ilit- v.t warm (up)
iliq ad warm (l/f), tepid
  Bugun havo iliq.
  It is warm today.
  iliq-miliq (rather) warm, tepid
iliqlik n warmth, tepidity
SALQIN adj, n cool, refreshing; cool(ness) Vital Functions
  Mevalarni salqin yerga qo'yish kerak.
  Fruit must be put in a cool place.
  U salqin yerda o'tiribdi.
  He is sitting in the shade.
salqinlik n coolness
salqinla- freshen o.s (up), refresh o.s.
salqinlash- get cooler
SOVU- get cold, turn cold Vital Functions
  sovub qol- get cold, turn cold
sovut- v.t cool (down)
sovuq adj cold, frosty
  Bu uy sovuq.
  This house is cold.
  Sovuq kunlar.
  Frosty days.
  n cold
  U sovuqdan qaltirar edi.
  He shivered with cold.
SOVQOT- get cold, freeze, freeze over
MUZ muzdek very cold (like ice), frosty Water & Air
muzla- freeze, be frozen
muzlat- v.t (make) freeze
TO'NG- freeze  
  to'ngib qol- freeze
to'ngdir- v.t (make) freeze
YORI- give light Electromagnetism
yorit- v.t light (up), illuminate, brighten
  Bu lampa katta xonani yetarli yoritmaydi.
  That lamp lights up the big room insufficiently.
  NX+ga / NX+ni NY bilan ~ light X with Y
  Menga fonarcha bilan yoritib tur!
  Light me with the electric torch.
  Yigitcha qizning yo'lini fonar bilan yoritdi.
  The youth lighted the girl the way with the pocket flach.
  yoritish lighting
yoritil- be illuminated
YORQIN adj bright, light
YORUG' n light, shine
  Elektr yorug'i.
  Electric light.
  Quyosh yorug'i.
  adj light, bright
  Uyning ichi yorug'.
  It is light in the room.
  yop-yorug' very bright, very light
yorug'lik n luminosity; (place with) light
QORONG'I adj, n dark, obscure; darkness, obscurity Electromagnetism
  qop-qorong'i pitch-dark
qorong'ilik n darkness, obscurity
qorong'ilan- darken, grow dark
qorong'ilat- v.t darken, make dark
ZULMAT n obscurity  
XIRA adj dull, dim, dark  
xiralan- get dull, get dim, darken
SIYOH adj black, dark Stationary
Organic Matter
  sim-siyoh deep black, very dark
RANG n colour Tools & Furnitures
  U kitobning muqovasi qaysi rangda?
  What colour is the cover of that book?
    paint, dye
    complexion, facial appearance
  NX+ga rang ber- colour X
  NX qaysi rangda? what colour is X?
  rang-barang multi-coloured
rangli adj coloured
  ko'p rangli multi-coloured
rangsiz adj colourless
rangdor adj coloured
TUS n shade, hue, color Characteristics
    appearance, manner
OLA adj multi-coloured, colourful  
  ola-bula colourfully patterned
  yo'l-yo'l striped  
  xol-xol dotted, spotted  
OQ adj white Appraisal
oqish adj whitish
oqar- turn white, turn pale
oqla- v.t whiten, whitewash
  U uyni oqlayapti.
  He is whitewashing the house.
/ oqartir-
v.t whiten, lighten
oqimtir adj whitish
OPPOQ adj very white, pure white
QORA adj black, dark  
  qop-qora pitch black, completely black
  tim-qora pitch black, completely black
qoray- turn black, turn dark
/ qorayt-
v.t blacken
qoramtil adj blackish
  kul rang grey, ash-grey, steel gray  
TO'Q adj dark, rich (colour) Vital Functions
OCH adj light, pale (prefix for colour)  
O'CH- fade, grow pale, grow dim Water & Air
Entities & Events
  Ko'ylakning rangi o'chdi.
  The dress has faded.
  Uning rangi o'chdi.
  He grew pale.
QIZIL adj red Emotions
  qip-qizil glaringly red, bright red
  to'q qizil dark red
QIZAR- turn red; blush
  Giloslar qizara boshladi.
  The cherries began to turn red.
/ qizartir-
v.t turn red
QIZG'ISH adj reddish
PUSHTI adj pink, rose  
  to'q sariq orange  
  qovoq rang orange  
SARIQ adj yellow  
  sap-sariq strikingly yellow
SARG'AY- turn yellow
/ sarg'ayt-
v.t turn yellow
SARG'ISH adj yellowish
MALLA adj blonde, light brown  
YASHIL adj green  
  Bog'imiz yashil ko'rinishga ega.
  Our garden looks green.
  yam-yashil bright green
  Bu daraxt yam-yashil.
  This tree is very green.
KO'K adj (sky) blue, (grass) green Nature & Cosmos
  Bu o't ko'kdir.
  This grass is green.
  Havo ko'kdir.
  The sky is blue.
  ko'm-ko'k bright blue, bright green
ko'kish adj bluish, greenish
ko'kar- turn green
ko'kartir- turn green
ko'kimtir adj bluish, greenish
  havo rang sky blue  
MOVIY adj light blue (vivid)  
  to'q ko'k navy blue  
ZANGORI adj light blue, turquoise  
  binafsha rang purple  
  jigar rang brown, liver-coloured  
  qahva rang brown  
  tilla rang golden, gilt  
  kumush rang silver  


MODDA n matter, substance  
  Yer bir moddadir.
  Earth is a substance.
    element (physical)
  Kislorod bir moddadir.
  Oxygen is an element.
MODDIY adj material (l/f)
  Eshmatga moddiy yordam berildi.
  Eshmat was given material help.
MATERIAL n material(s) (physical / documents) Production
ATOM n atom  
YADRO n nucleus  
  yadro energiyasi nuclear energy
yadroviy adj nuclear
VODOROD n hydrogen  
UGLEROD n carbon  
AZOT n nitrogen  
KISLOTA n acid  
KISLOROD n oxygen
METALL n metal  
TEMIR n iron  
PO'LAT n steel  
OLTIN n gold; golden  
TILLA n gold  
ZAR n gold  
ZARHAL adj golden
zarhalla- v.t gild, cover with gold
PLATINA n platinum  
KUMUSH n silver  
MIS n copper  
QALAY n tin  
BRONZA n bronze  
QO'RG'OSHIN n lead  
TUZ n salt Taste
MINERAL n mineral  
qazilma adj mineral  
RUDA n ore  
  NX rudasi X ore
ZANG n rust  
  NX+ni ~ bos- make X rusty
zangla- rust
YOQUT n ruby, precious stone  
LA'L n ruby, sapphire  
OLMOS n diamond  
ZUMRAD n emerald  
BO'R n chalk  
MARMAR n marble  
SOPOL n earthenware  
TOSH n stone, rock  
toshli adj stony
toshloq n stony place
XARSANG n boulder, rock  
  xarsang tosh rock
QOYA n rock  
TUPROQ n earth, soil Lands
  Tuproq yaxshi ishlanmasa, yerdan yaxshi hosil olish ham mumkin emas.
  If the earth is not well worked, it is impossible to get a good harvest from the place.
    land, territory
QUM n sand  
qumli adj sandy
qumloq n sandy place, sands
LOY n mud Buildings & Works
  Ko'chada loy ko'p.
  There is a lot of mud in the street.
    clay (used for building)
  Devor urish uchun loy kerak.
  Clay is needed to build the wall.
loyli adj muddy, unclear
loyla- v.t make muddy
BALCHIQ n mud  
balchiqli adj muddy, covered with mud
CHANG n dust  
  Ko'chada chang ko'p.
  There is a lot of dust in the street.
changi- get dusty
TO'Z- turn to dust  
to'zon n dust
  chang-to'zon dusty  
G'UBOR n dust  
g'uborli adj dusty, dark
g'uborsiz adj clean, pure
beg'ubor adj clean, pure (l/f)
KUKUN n powder  
kukunla- v.t grind to powder
POROSHOK n powder  
SHISHA n glass Appliances
BILLUR n crystal  
XRUSTAL n crystal  
CHINNI n china  
PLASTMASSA n plastic  
REZINA n rubber  
YELIM n glue, gum Processes
PASTA n paste  
SOVUN n soap Toilet
SUV n water Vital Functions
Purity & Humidity
  NX suvi X(=fruit) juice
  NX+ni suv bos- X be flooded
  oqar suv running water
  suv osti underwater, submarine
SUYUQ adj liquid, thin, watery
SUG'OR- v.t water, irrigate
MUZ n ice Temperature
muzli adj full of ice
muzla- freeze, be frozen
YAX n ice, frost  
yaxla- freeze
yaxlat- v.t freeze
BUG' n steam Properties
bug'lan- evaporate
HAVO n air, atmosphere Weather
  Havoning bosishi kuchli.
  The atmosphere pressure is high.
havoli adj with air
havosiz adj without air
O'T n fire  
  o't qo'y- set a fire
  o't ol- catch fire
  NX+ga o't tush- a fire break in X
OLOV n fire (lighten by human)  
GULXAN n camp fire  
ALANGA n flame  
alangalan- ignite, catch fire
UCHQUN n spark  
GURILLA- crackle  
TUTA- smoke  
TUTUN n smoke
DUD n smoke  
YOQ- v.t light (fire, match), switch on, turn on (lamp, electricity)  
  Qizcha shamni yoqdi.
  The girl lighted a candle.
  U o't yoqyapti.
  He is lighting a fire.
yoqil- be lit
yoqilg'i n fuel
QALA- v.t lay out for a fire  
qalan- catch fire
YON- burn (fire)  
  O't yonyapti.
  The fire is burning.
    give a light (lamp)
  yonib ket- catch fire
yonilg'i n fuel
yondir- v.t light (fire), set fire, burn
  NX+ni ~+ib tashla- burn down X
  Kunlarning birida u o'zining eski xatlarining hammasini yondirib tashladi.
  One day she has burnt down all her old letters.
yong'in n fire (destructive), conflagration
KUY- burn, get burnt (by fire or heat) Entities & Events
  Qo'lim kuyib qoldi.
  My hand got burnt.
kuydir- v.t burn
  U qog'ozlarni kuydirdi.
  He burnt the papers.
    anger, annoy, cause trouble
YALLIG' n flame Health
/ yallig'la- flare, catch alight
/ yallig'lat-
v.t set on fire, set fire to
O'CH- die out, go out (fire, lamp) Light & Colors
Entities & Events
  O't o'chdi.
  The fire went out.
    fade, grow pale, grow dim
    disappear, vanish
o'chir- v.t put out, extinguish (fire, lamp)
    cause to vanish, erase
  o't o'chirish bo'limi fire department
SO'N- go out, become extinguished (fire)  
so'ndir- v.t put out, extinguish (fire)
CHO'G' n ember(s)  
KUL n ash(es)  
  Uning so'zini eshitib kuldim.
  I laughed at what he said.
GAZ n gas (combustible)  
gazsimon adj gaseous
NEFT n oil, petroleum  
neftli adj oil
BENZIN n petrol, gasoline  
DIZEL n diesel  
KO'MIR n coal  
O'TIN n firewood  
YOG'OCH n wood, timber; wooden  
QOG'OZ n paper Rules & Contracts
  qalin qog'oz cardboard
KARTON n cardboard  
SIYOH n ink Stationary
Light & Colors
MOY n non-edible oil, grease Dairy
  Yer moyi sanoat uchun zarur.
  Oil is essential for industry.
    edible oil, fat, grease
moyli adj oily, greasy
moyla- v.t oil, grease
YOG' n fat, oil, grease Dairy
  Nonga yog' surkadim.
  I spread butter on the bread.
yog'li adj fat, oily, greasy
yog'la- v.t grease, oil
ELEKTR n, adj electricity; electric  
ELEKTRON n, adj electron; electronic
TOK n (electric) current  
  elektr toki electric current
VOL'T meas volt  
AMPER meas ampere  
TO'LQIN n Hertzian wave(s), wavelength Waters
MAGNIT n magnet  
YORUG' n light, shine Light & Colors
  Elektr yorug'i.
  Electric light.
  Quyosh yorug'i.
  adj light, bright
  Uyning ichi yorug'.
  It is light in the room.
  elektr yorug'i electric light
  oy yorug'i moonlight
  quyosh yorug'i sunlight
NUR n (light) ray Nature & Cosmos
  Quyoshning nuri kuchli.
  The sun's ray are strong.
  nur soch- shine
  quyosh nuri sunshine, sunlight
nurlik adj luminous, shiny
nursiz adj dim, dusky
nurlan- shine, be luminous, glitter
YOG'DU n light, ray  
SHU'LA n (light) ray, shine  
RENTGEN n X-rays Medicine
  rentgen nurlari X-rays
PORLA- shine (forth)  
porloq adj bright, brilliant (l/f)
RAVSHAN ad bright(ly) Truth
    clear(ly), clear-cut
ravshanlik n brightness
OFTOB n sunshine, (place in the) sun Nature & Cosmos
  Oftobga chiqmang!
  Don't go out in the sun!
  Oftobning ta'siri yo'q.
  The sun has no strength.
  Uyga oftob tushdi.
  The sun is shining in the room.
OYDIN n moonlight Nature & Cosmos
  yalt et- shine, glitter, sparkle  
yaltira- shine, glitter, sparkle
yaltirat- v.t shine, polish
yaltiroq adj shining, glittering, sparkling
  Oyna yaltiroq.
  The window is shining.
  yilt et- glitter, sparkle  
/ yiltilla- glitter, sparkle
  yiltirash glitter, sparkle
yiltiroq adj glittering, sparkling
CHARAQLA- sparkle, shine  
AKS n reflection Identity & Difference
  aks et- reflect
  aks ettir- reflect
QORONG'I adj, n dark, obscure; darkness, obscurity Light & Colors
  qorong'i qil- block the light
  qorong'i tush- darkness fall
  Qorong'i tushdi.
  Darkness fell.
SOYA n shade, shadow  
  Daraxtning soyasida o'tirdim.
  I sat in the shade of a tree.
  U o'z soyasidan qo'rqdi.
  He is afraid of his own shadow.
sersoya adj shady
KO'LANKA n shade, shadow  
TOVUSH n sound, voice Vital Functions
  Ba'zi bir so'zlar unli tovushdan iboratdir.
  Some words consist of vowels.
  tovush qil- make noise
  Tovush qilmang!
  Don't make a noise!
tovushli adj noisy, (with) sound, sonorous
tovushsiz adj noiseless, silent
UN n sound, voice Vital Functions
  Nega un chiqarmay o'tiribsiz?
  Why are you sitting without a sound?
  Uning unini eshitdi.
  I heard his voice.
OVOZ n voice Vital Functions
    sound, volume
  Ko'chadan surnay ovozi kelyapti.
  The sound of a surnay is coming from the street.
  ovoz(+ini) chiqar- sound, make noise, (be) aloud
ovozli adj voiced, (with) sound
ovozsiz adj silent
SADO n voice, sound, echo Vital Functions
BALAND ad loud (voice) Whole & Parts
Vital Functions
JARANG n ringing, jingle  
  jarang-jurung jingle-jangle
jarangli adj sonorous, voiced
jarangla- ring, jingle
  Qo'ng'iroq jaranglaydi.
  Bells are ringing.
JIRINGLA- ring, jingle
YANGRA- ring, ring out  
yangroq adj ringing, loud
G'IJIR n grating, creaking  
g'ijirla- grate, creak
SHOVQIN n noise, clamour, shout Vital Functions
  shovqin sol- make noise
  shovqin qil- make noise
  Bolalar shovqin qilyaptilar.
  The children are making noise.
SURON n loud noise, clamor Vital Functions
  shovqin-suron big noise, din; hubbub, uproar Vital Functions
  shov-shuv big noise, din  
  aks-sado echo  


TABIAT n nature, Nature Characteristics
  Bu tog'lar tabiatning bir ko'rinishidir.
  These mountains are one of nature's phenomena.
    nature, character
TABIIY adj natural
  Bizning mamlakatda tabiiy boyliklar ko'p.
  There is much natural wealth in our country.
tabiiyot n natural science
KOINOT n the universe, cosmos  
JAHON n the universe, the world  
  Jahonda bir qancha mamlakatlar bor.
  There are several different countries in the world.
OLAM n world, universe  
  olam-jahon the whole world, everybody  
DUNYO n world, realm  
  Dunyoda ko'p xalqlar yashaydilar.
  There are many nations living in this world.
  butun dunyo(+ga) all over the world
dunyoviy adj world
FAZO n space Location
    outer space
YULDUZ n star  
yulduzli adj star-studded
QUYOSH n sun Electromagnetism
  Quyosh issiqlik beradi.
  The sun gives warmth.
  quyosh botishi sunset
  quyosh chiqishi sunrise
  quyosh nuri sunshine, sunlight
quyoshli adj sunny
KUN n day Social Life
Time Units
  kun botishi sunset
  kun chiqishi sunrise
OFTOB n sunshine, (place in the) sun Electromagnetism
  Oftobga chiqmang!
  Don't go out in the sun!
  Oftobning ta'siri yo'q.
  The sun has no strength.
  Uyga oftob tushdi.
  The sun is shining in the room.
PLANETA n planet  
SAYYORA n planet  
yo'ldosh n satellite Roads
OY n moon Time Units
  to'lin oy full moon
  yangi tug'ilgan oy new moon
OYDIN n moonlight Electromagnetism
HILOL n (moon) crescent  
OSMON n sky, heaven  
KO'K n sky Light & Colors
  Ko'kda yuldiz bor.
  There are stars in the sky.
FALAK n sky Entities & Events
UFQ n horizon  
YER n the Earth Location
  Ekin yerlari.
  Land under cultivation.
    place (l/f)
  yer osti underground
  Yer osti boyliklari.
  The riches of the earth.
  yer shari globe (of the earth)
  yer yuzi the surface (of the earth)
YEROSTI n, adj underground  
ZAMIN n land, soil  
TUPROQ n earth, soil Minerals
  Tuproq yaxshi ishlanmasa, yerdan yaxshi hosil olish ham mumkin emas.
  If the earth is not well worked, it is impossible to get a good harvest from the place.
    land, territory
MINTAQA n (geographical) zone  
QIT'A n continent  
TOG' n mountain, (large) hill  
  tog' cho'qqisi peak
  tog' etagi foot of a mountain
  tog' tepasi top of a mountain
  tog' tizmalari mountain ridge
tog'li adj mountainous
TEPA n hill Position
tepalik n height, hill
tepacha n small hill
ADIR n hill, mound, foothills  
n volcano  
CHO'QQI n peak, top, summit  
  Bu odam tog'ning cho'qqisiga chiqdi.
  The man climbed up to the top of the mountain.
DOVON n (mountain) pass  
PEREVAL n (mountain) pass  
VODIY n valley  
tekislik n plain  
CHO'L n desert, waste land, steppe  
SAHRO n desert  
BIYOBON n desert  
qumlik n sandy land  
DASHT n steppe  
VOHA n oasis  
o'tzor n meadow Plants
o'tloq n meadow
    pasture, range
YAYLOV n summer pasture Agriculture
O'RMON n forest, wood  
o'rmonli adj wooded
o'rmonzor n wooded place, wood
daraxtzor n grove, wood  
CHAKALAK n undergrowth, bush  
chakalakzor n bush
G'OR n cave  
UNGUR n cave  
DENGIZ n sea, ocean  
OKEAN n ocean  
KO'RFAZ n gulf, bay  
TO'LQIN n wave(s) Electromagnetism
to'lqinli adj with waves
to'lqinlan- be with waves
to'lqinsimon adj like waves, wavy
MAVJ n wave, swell  
DARYO n river  
IRMOQ n tributary  
ANHOR n small river Agriculture
    irrigation canal
SOY n rivulet  
SHALOLA n waterfall, cascade  
KO'L n lake, pond  
HOVUZ n pool, pond, reservoir Sport
KO'LMAK n pool, pond  
BOTQOQ n marsh, bog, swamp  
  adj marshy, boggy, swampy
HAVZA n basin  
OROL n island  
  yarim orol peninsula
QIRG'OQ n bank, shore  
SOHIL n shore, bank  
  dengiz sohili coast
BO'Y n bank, shore Body
bo'yla- v.t stroll along the shore, the bank
PLAJ n beach  
BULOQ n spring, source  
  buloq suvi spring water
  Buloq suvidan ichdim.
  I drank some water from the spring.
CHASHMA n spring  
ATMOSFERA n atmosphere  
atmosferaviy adj atmospheric
IQLIM n climate  
iqlimiy adj climatic
HAVO n air, atmosphere Water & Air
  Havoning bosishi kuchli.
  The atmosphere pressure is high.
  Havo ko'kdir.
  The sky is blue.
  Havo ochiq.
  The weather is fine.
  havo shari atmosphere
  ochiq havo fine weather
  yumshoq havo mild weather
  ob-havo weather  
  Ochiq ob-havo.
  Fine weather.
  ob-havo ma'lumoti weather report
KUN n weather (of the day) Social Life
Nature & Cosmos
Time Units
ochil- clear up (of weather) Processes
ochiq adj clear (of weather)
  Havo ochiq.
  The weather is fine.
ISSIQ n heat, hot weather Temperature
  May oyida issiq boshlanadi.
  The hot weather starts in May.
sovuq n frost Temperature
  Qattiq sovuq.
  Heavy frost.
QIROV n hoarfrost  
AYOZ n light frost  
  sovuq tush- turn cold  
  salqin tush- get cool, turn cool  
  Salqin tushdi.
  It has turned cool.
SHAMOL n wind  
  shamol es- (wind) blow, be windy
shamolli adj windy
shamollat- v.t ventilate, air (out)
  Tanaffus vaqtida sinfni shamollating.
  Air the classroom during the break.
YEL n wind  
IZG'IRIN n cold, penetrating wind  
SHABADA n breeze  
BO'RON n storm, tempest  
bo'ronli adj stormy
DOVUL n storm, hurricane  
PO'RTANA n storm, whirlwind  
TO'FON n typhoon, hurricane  
BULUT n cloud  
bulutli adj cloudy
bulutlan- cloud over, become overcast
TUMAN n mist, fog  
  tuman tush- get misty, get foggy
tumanli adj misty, foggy
YOMG'IR n rain  
  yomg'ir yog'- rain
  mayda yomg'ir drizzle
yomg'irli adj rainy
JALA n shower  
SEL n downpour  
    flash flood
QOR n snow  
  qor yog'- snow
qorli adj snowy
DO'L n hail  
  do'l yog'- hail
YOG'- fall (of precipitation)  
  Bu yil ko'p qor yog'di.
  It has snowed a lot yesterday.
yog'in n precipitation
SHABNAM n dew  
SHUDRING n dew  
MOMAQALDIROQ n thunderstorm  
  Momaqaldiroq gumbirlayapti.
  Thunder is rumbling.
CHAQMOQ n lightning  
  chaqmoq chaq- flash (of lightning)
  Chaqmoq chaqdi.
  Lightning flashed.
YASHIN n lightning  
GUMBURLA- rumble (of thunder)  
KAMALAK n rainbow  
SAROB n mirage  
FASL n season Time Units
MAVSUM n season, time Time Units
  Paxta terish mavsumi boshlandi.
  The cotton picking season has started.
mavsumiy adj seasonal
BAHOR n spring Time Units
bahorgi adj spring
KO'KLAM n early spring Time Units
YOZ n summer Time Units
yozgi adj summer
SARATON n hottest part of the summer  
KUZ n autumn Time Units
kuzgi adj autumnal
QISH n winter Time Units
qishki adj winter
QAHRATON qahraton qish severe winter  
QURG'OQ adj arid, dry Purity & Humidity
qurg'oqchilik n drought
toshqin n flood, flooding, swamping Motion
  Shaharimiz suv toshqini natijasida buzildi.
  Our town was damaged as a result of the flood.
  suv toshqini flood
ko'chki n avalanche  
  qor ko'chkisi avalanche
  tog' ko'chkisi landslide
  yer qimirlash earthquake  
ZILZILA n earthquake  
MANZARA n scenery, landscape, view  
  Uyimizning atrofi go'zal manzaraga ega.
  Our house has a beautiful view.
PEYZAJ n landscape