Space and Time

Size

KATTA adj big, large Descendants
Men & Women
Life
Organizations
  Bu etik menga katta.
  These boots are too big for me.
    grand; eldest, elder
    grown up
kattalik n size, largeness
kattalash- v.int get bigger
kattalashtir- v.t make bigger, enlarge
  Yigitcha otasining suratini kattalashtirdi.
  The youth has enlarged the photography of his father.
kattakon adj huge, immense
    elder
ULKAN adj huge, large  
YIRIK adj large, big, bulky Value
  Olmalardan yiriklarini terib oling!
  Help yourself to the biggest apples!
    prominent
yiriklash- v.int get larger, get bigger
KICHIK adj small, little Descendants
  Bu uy juda ham kichik.
  This house is very small.
    younger
kichiklik n smallness
kichiklash- v.int grow shorter
kichiklashtir- v.t shorten
KICHKINA adj very small, little, tiny
  Menga kichkina bir uy kerak.
  I need a tiny little house.
MAYDA adj small  
BO'Y n size, length, height Body
Waters
Life
  Uyning bo'yi besh metr.
  The room is five metres in length.
  NX+ning ~+i uzun tall
  Uning bo'yi uzun.
  He is tall.
bo'yli adj tall, with a given size
  bo'yga yetkan grown up
UZUN adj long Time
  Bu arg'amchi uzun.
  This rope is long.
  Uning bo'yi uzun.
  He is tall.
uzunlik n length
UZAY- v.int lengthen, extend
uzaytir- v.t lengthen, extend
QISQA adj short (space and time) Time
Informing
  Qisqa yo'l.
  Short road.
    brief, concise
qisqalik n shortness
qisqar- v.int get shorter, be reduced
  Kunlar qisqardi.
  The days have grown shorter.
qisqartir- v.t shorten, reduce
  qisqartirish reduction
KALTA adj short  
  Uning kalta to'ni bor.
  He has a short coat.
  kalta qil- shorten
  To'nimni kalta qilib qo'yibdi.
  He shortened my coat.
KENG adj broad, wide, vast, spacious Organizations
  Bu ko'cha keng.
  This street is wide.
    extensive, wide-spread
kenglik n breadth, width
kengay- v.int get broader, get wider
kengaytir- v.t broaden, widen
EN n width, breadth  
enli adj wide, broad
ensiz adj narrow
POYON n limit, boundary  
bepoyon ad limitless, boundless, infinite(ly)
bepoyonlik n immensity, infinity
TOR adj narrow, tight  
  Bu kiyim menga tor.
  This dress is too tight for me.
torlik n narrowness
toray- v.int be reduced, become less
toraytir- v.t reduce
QALIN adj thick Properties
  Bu uyning devori qalin.
  The walls of this house are thick.
    dense (solid)
qalinlik n thickness
qalinla- v.int get thicker
qalinlat- v.t thicken
YO'G'ON adj thick, stout, fat, big Body
yo'g'onlik n thickness, stoutness, fatness
yo'g'onlash- v.int get thicker, stouter
YUPQA adj thin Food
  Bu qog'oz yupqa.
  This paper is thin.
yupqalik n thinness
yupqalan- v.int get thinner
yupqalashtir- v.t make thinner
INGICHKA adj thin, slender Body
  Uning beli ingichka.
  Her waist is slender.
    fine
  Inga ingichka.
  The needle is fine.
BALAND ad high Whole & Parts
Position
Vital Functions
Sound
  Bemorning issig'i baland.
  The patient's temperature is high.
  Bu devorlar baland.
  These walls are high.
  Samolyot juda baland ko'tarildi.
  The plane rose very high.
  Uning baland iqboli bor.
  He is a great success.
balandlik n height
balandlash- v.int get higher
balandlat- v.t make higher
PAST adj low Money
Whole & Parts
Value
Position
Generosity
  Bu past uy.
  This is low house.
  Turkistonda bir qancha past tekisliklar bor.
  There are many low-lying plains in Turkestan.
  n bottom
pastlik n lowness
PASAY- v.int lower, decrease, come down
pasaytir- v.t lower, decrease
CHUQUR adj deep Processes
Involvement
  Bu dengiz chuqur.
  This see is deep.
chuqurlik n depth
chuqurlash- v.int deepen (l/f)
chuqurlashtir- v.t deepen (l/f)
SAYOZ adj shallow  
  Bu daryo sayoz.
  This river is shallow.
sayozlik n shallowness
sayozlash- adj get more shallow
       
SAFH n surface, area  
  dengiz safhi sea-level
HAJM n volume, capacity, area  
KVADRAT n, adj square  
KUB n cube  
kubik adj cubic
METR meas metre  
  kub metr cubic metre
  kvadrat metr square metre
KILOMETR meas kilometre
  Bir soatda to'rt kilometr yurdik.
  We covered four kilometers in one hour.
  kvadrat kilometr square kilometre
MILLIMETR meas millimetre
SANTIMETR meas centimetre
GEKTAR meas hectar  
QARICH meas (hand) span  
QULOCH meas two outstretched arms  
LITR meas litre  

Shape

SHAKL n form, shape Method
Characteristics
  Bu odamning shakli chiroyli.
  This man's figure is good.
  Shaklimni oynakda ko'rdim.
  I saw my figure in the mirror.
    manner, way
shakllan- v.int form, take shape
shakllantir- v.t form, shape
NO'QTA n point, dot (l/f)  
CHIZ- v.t draw a line, underline Art
  Kitobning shu joyini chizing.
  Underline this passage in the book.
    draw, sketch
chiziq n line
  Bu chiziqni o'tmang.
  Do not pass this line.
chiziqli adj ruled, lined
QATOR n row, line, column Items
  Qator turgan askarlarni ko'rdingizmi?
  Did you see the soldiers standing in line?
qatorla- v.t align
qatorlash- v.int line up, stand side by side
SAF n row, line Items
Politics
     
YUZ n face Visits & Greetings
Head
Involvement
    surface, face
  Yer yuzida turli-turli xalqlar bor.
  There are very many different peoples on the face of the earth.
yuza adj open, surface
yuzaki ad superficial(ly) (l/f)
  Bu lug'atni yozishda yuzaki ish qilish mumkin emas.
  It is impossible to work superficially when compiling this dictionary.
BET n surface, face Head
Stationary
     
BURCHAK n corner, angle  
  Sizni bu ko'chaning burchagida kutaman.
  I will wait for you at the corner of this street.
burchakli adj | numX ~ with X angles
UCHBURCHAK n triangle
TO'RTBURCHAK n square
to'rtburchakli adj square
XOCH n cross  
YOY n arc, bow  
yumaloq adj round, circular Motion
  Menga bir yumaloq oynak kerak.
  I need a round mirror.
yumaloqla- v.t round
dumaloq adj round, circular Motion
  Bu kuldon dumaloq.
  This ashtray is round.
  dum-dumaloq completely round
AYLAN- v.int | NX atrofida ~ turn round; revolve round X, rotate Motion
Change
Tourism
aylana n circle
aylanma adj circular
qayril- v.int turn Motion
qayrilma n turning, corner
DOIRA n circle Position
Organizations
    circle, sphere, limits
  Shahar doirasiga yashovchi odamlarni ro'yxatga olish kerak.
  People living within the city must be registered.
  U odamni o'z doiramizga olishimiz kerak.
  We must accept that man into our circle.
doiraviy adj circular
HALQA n ring  
SHAR n globe, sphere  
GRADUS meas degree (angles) Temperature
  45 gradus burchak.
  Angle of 45 degrees.
    degree (temperature)
       
TO'G'RI adj straight Motion
Truth
Honesty
  Bu yo'l to'g'ri.
  This road is straight.
    right, correct, true
  adv straight away, directly
  to'g'riga straight away
  to'ppa-to'g'ri perfectly straight
burma n fold Processes
QAT n layer Buildings
qatlam n layer
QAVAT n layer, stratum, ply Buildings
  Ikki qavat ko'rpa.
  Two layers of quilt.
  Yerning birinchi qavati.
  Top soil.
  qavatma-qavat pile, stack
  Bu kitoblarni qavatma-qavat qo'ying!
  Put these books in a pile!
qavatli adj layered, stratified
qavatla- v.t pile up, stack up
TEKIS ad smooth(ly); level Attention
Properties
  Bu qog'oz tekis.
  This paper is smooth.
  Bu yer tekis.
  This place is level.
notekis adj irregular, uneven
tekisla- v.t level
SIMMETRIK adj symmetric  
SIMMETRIYA n symmetry
PARALLEL adj parallel  
yotiq adj horizontal; leaning to one side, fallen Immobility
TIK adj straight, steep  
  tik tur- stand up straight
TIKKA adj upright, straight
ko'tarma adj rising, steep Prehension
QIYA n, adj slope; sloping  
qiyalik n slope, incline
EG- v.t bend, bow Processes
Properties
egil- v.int bend, bow
EGRI adj bent, crooked
  egri-bugri crooked, twisted Processes
QING'IR adj crooked  
qing'irlik n crook
       
UCH n point, end, extremity Position
Processes
  Ipning uchini ushlang!
  Hold the end of the thread please!
  Qalamning uchi sindi.
  The point of the pencil has broken.
uchli adj sharp, pointed
uchla- v.t sharpen
QIRRA n edge, ridge, facet Position
OYOQ n extremity, end, completion Body & Members
Tools & Furnitures
Evolution
  Bu ishning oyog'iga yetkazish kerak.
  This work must be brought to completion.
OG'IZ
(og'z+i)
n mouth, opening, aperture Head
Food
Speach
  Ko'chaning og'zi.
  The beginning of a street.
  Kopning og'zi.
  The mouth of a sack.

Location

TUR- v.int stand Immobility
Evolution
Frequency
Housing
Character
Money
    stay, stop, be (swh), stay (at)
     
     
     
     
YER n land Lands
    place (l/f)
  Buning hech bir yomon yeri yo'q.
  There is nothing bad in this.
  Dod deydigan yerimiz yo'q.
  We have no reason to complain.
  Qaysi yerim kam?
  Where am I wrong?
  bu/shu/u yer+da/ga/dan here, there
  Bu yerga keling!
  Come here please!
  U yerda kim bor?
  Who is there?
  qayer+da/ga/dan where
  har yer+da/ga/dan everywhere
  hech yer+da/ga/dan nowhere
  allaqayer+da/ga/dan somewhere
yerlik adj local
MAHALLIY adj local Urbanism
  Bu mamlakatda mahalliy aholidan tashqari boshqa millat kishilari ham yashaydilar.
  Apart from the native population there are also people from other nations in this country.
  G'isht fabrikasi mahalliy sanoatning bir qismidir.
  Brick factories are part of the local industry.
JOY n place (l/f), position Housing
Attention
Release
  Bu joy bo'shmi?
  Is this place free?
  Bu kitobda qiziq joylar ko'p.
  There are many interesting places in this book.
  Yoshlar qarilarga joy berish kerak.
  Young people must give up their seats to the old.
  boshqa joy+da/ga/dan elsewhere
  joyida just right, smoothly
  NX+ga ~ sol- make room for X
  Sizga bu yerga joy solib beraman.
  I will make up a bed for you here.
  NX+ga ~ qil- make room for X
joyla- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ place, install, pack X into Y
  U narsalarini chamadonga joyladi.
  He packed his things into a trunk.
joylash- v.int | NX+ga ~ find a place in X, settle down in X, put up at X
  Bu shahar dengiz qirg'og'ida joylashgan.
  This town lies on the seashore.
    be located at X, be situated at X, lie on X
  Men mehmonxonaga joylashdim.
  I have put up at an inn.
joylashtir- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ find a place for X in Y, put X in Y
O'RIN
(o'rn+i)
n place to sit, seat, place to sleep Administration
Housing
Tools & Furnitures
Preservation
Change
Necessity
Value
Release
Organizations
    place, room
  Unga o'rin bering!
  Make room for him please!
  NX+ning o'rn+ini bos- replace X, take the place of X
  NX+ning o'rniga instead of X
  o'rin ol- take place, take a seat
  U o'rin oldi.
  He took a seat.
  o'rin tut- occupy a seat
o'rinli adj with room, with place
    appropriate, reasonable, justified
  adj | numX ~ with X seats
o'rinsiz adj with no room
O'RNAT- v.t establish, found
  v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ put up X at Y, set up X in Y, install X at Y
O'RNASH- v.int | NX+ga ~ settle down in X, establish oneself
o'rnashtir- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ find a place for X in Y, put X in Y
PUNKT n point, specific spot  
MAKON n place, location, space  
MAYDON n place, area, field, site, territory Urbanism
  Ekin maydonida ishladim.
  I worked in an area under cultivation.
  Urush maydonida ko'p yaradorlar qoldilar.
  Many wounded were left on the battlefield.
ZONA n zone  
bo'shliq n emptiness, space Density
FAZO n space Nature & Cosmos
    outer space
TUT- v.t occupy (place, location) Preservation
Prehension
     
       
ICH n interior, inside Time
Health
Density
Buildings
  U ichidan kulib qo'ydi.
  He smiled to himself.
  NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga inside X, in X
  U qizni uy ichiga olib kirdi.
  She led the girl into the room.
  Uyning ichida kimlar bor?
  Who is in the house?
ichki adj inner, internal
ICHKARI n, adv inside
  Ichkarida hech kim yo'q edi.
  There was nobody inside.
  Ichkariga kiring!
  Come inside!
TASHQI adj outer, external Quantity
Identity & Difference
People & Nation
TASHQARI n, adv exterior, outside
  Tashqariga chiqaman.
  I am going outside.
  NX+dan ~ other than X, in addition to X, besides X
  ichki-tashqi inside and outside  
SIRT n exterior, appearance, surface Characteristics
sirtqi adj external, outward
CHEK n limit, boundary, limitation Numbers
  U chekdan tashqarida.
  He is outside the limits.
  U o'zining chek yerida ishlayapti.
  He is working his own plot.
CHEGARA n boundary, limit, frontier
  Mamlakatning chegarasiga bordim.
  I went up to the frontiers of the country.
chegarala- v.t put limits
chegaralan- v.int | NX bilan ~ border X, have frontiers with X
chegaradosh adj | NX bilan ~ have frontiers with X, border on X
  Rossiya g'arb tomondan Polsha Respublikasi bilan chegaradoshdir.
  Russia borders in west on the Polish Republic.
TUTASH- v.int | NX+ga ~ border on X, be connected to X  
DOIRA n circle Shapes
Organizations
    circle, sphere, limits
SOHA n domain, field Science
JIHAT n aspect, side, field Identity & Difference
MARKAZ n centre (location and organization) Organizations
  Men shaharning markazida turaman.
  I live in the centre of the city.
markaziy adj central
markazlash- v.int centralize, concentrate
markazlashtir- v.t centralize, concentrate
O'RTA n, adj centre, middle; central Numbers
Value
Whole & Parts
  XIX asr o'rtalari.
  The middle of the 19th century.
  NX+ning ~+sida/dan/ga among X, between X
  Ikki polisning o'rtasida keldi.
  He came between two policemen.
  U odamlarning o'rtasida.
  He is among the people.
o'rtalik n centre, middle
o'rtacha ad (in) average, medium
ORA n interspace, middle, midst Time
  G'oza qator oralari.
  Space between rows of cotton plants.
  Uni oramizdan chiqardik.
  We expelled him from our midst.
  NX+ning ~+sida/dan/ga among X
  Ularning orasida tog'am ham bor.
  My uncle is also among them.
  NX bilan NY+ning ~+si interspace, distance between X and Y
  Parij bilan Toshkentning orasi.
  The distance between Paris and Tashkent.
oralik n interval, interspace
orala- v.int occupy, populate, frequent
       
TOMON n side; way (direction) Reflection
  Ko'chaning u tomoniga boring!
  Go to the other side of the street!
  post | NX+ga ~ towards
  har tomondan from all directions, from all sides
tomonli adj | numX ~ X sided
tomonlama adj sided, sidedly
  o'sha yo'l that way  
  qaysi yo'l which way
  shu yo'l this way
ATROF n surroundings, vicinity Whole & Parts
Participation
  Maktabni topish uchun atrofga qaradim.
  I looked around to find the school.
  Uyimizning atrofi daraxtlar bilan o'ralgan.
  Our house is surrounded by trees.
  n | NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga around X
  Shaharning atrofida ko'p qishloqlar bor.
  There are many villages round the town.
    around X, about X
  yaqin atrofda around here
TARAF n side (one of two opposite sides)
  Sizni ko'chaning u tarafida kutaman.
  I shall wait for you on the other side of the street.
    side, party
  tarafma-taraf opposite, opposing
TEVARAK n surroundings, neighbourhood, outskirts  
  NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga in the environs of X
  tevarak-atrof surroundings, environment  
CHEKKA n side, edge, surroundings  
  adj surrounding
O'RA- v.t wrap up, roll up Processes
  NX bilan ~+b ol- surround, encircle with X
  Uy baland to'siq bilan o'rab olingan.
  The house is surrended by a high fence.
  Dushman askarlarini o'rab olish kerak.
  The enemy forces must be surrounded.
  o'rab tur- surround, encircle
o'ral- v.int | NX bilan ~ be surrounded by X
QURSHA- v.t surround  
qurshal- v.int be surrounded
qurshov n surrounding, encircling
YON n side (immediate vicinity) Possession
Body & Members
  NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga near X, beside X
  U yonimizdan o'tdi.
  He passed by us.
  Uyning yonida bog' bor.
  The house has a garden.
  Yonimga keling!
  Come to me!
    on X, with X
  yonma-yon side by side
yonlab adv | NX+ni ~ along the edge of X, by the side of X
  Ekinlarni yonlab bordik.
  We went along the edge of the cultivated fields.
yondosh adj | NX+ga ~ adjacent to X, next to X
  Bizning uyimiz sizlarnikiga yondosh.
  Our house is next to yours.
    parallel
YONBOSH n side
yonboshla- v.int lie on one's side
YONDOSH- v.int | NX+ga ~ reach X, approach X, come near X
YOQ n side  
  Bu uyning bu yog'i yaxshi.
  This side of the house is better.
  Bu xabar u yoqdan keldi.
  This information came from here.
  bu/u yoq+da/dan/qa here, there
  Bu yoqda turing!
  Stay here!
  Bu yoqdan senga xabar bormaguncha siz bu yoqqa kelmang.
  Don't come until you get news from here.
  u yoq bu yoqqa here and there
YOQA n edge, bank Motion
yoqala- v.t walk along, go along
BERI adv near, close Evolution
  Beriroq keling!
  Come closer!
  NX+dan ~+da/dan/ga this side of X
  Bizning uyimiz shahardan berida.
  Our house is this side of the city.
  Moskvadan narimi, berimi?
  Beyond or this side of Moscow?
NARI adv over there  
  NX+dan ~+da/dan/ga beyond X, over X
LAB n bank, ridge, edge Head
YAQIN adj | NX+ga ~ near by X, close to X Whole & Parts
Time
Social Life
Involvement
  adj | numX+ga ~ close to X, about X, approximately X
  NX+ning yaqin+ida/dan/ga near X, not far from X
  Ingliz tili o'qituvchimiz uyimizning yaqinida yashaydi.
  Our english teacher lives not far from us.
  bir-biriga ~ keltir- bring closer
  yaqindagi the one nearby
  yaqindan directly, intimately
yaqinlik n closeness, proximity
yaqinlash- v.int | NX+ga ~ come near X, get nearer, approach X
  Poyezd ohista perronga yaqinlashdi.
  The train was slowly approaching the platform.
  Qafasga yaqinlashmang.
  Don't approach nearer to the cage.
yaqinlashtir- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ put X near to Y, move X near to Y
QO'SHNI n neighbour Social Life
qo'shnichilik n neighbourhood
ZICH ad dense(ly), thick(ly), compact(ly)  
  Gullar juda zich ekilibdi.
  The flowers are planted very thickly.
    close(ly), tight(ly)
zichlik n density
    closeness
JIPS ad close(ly), tight(ly) Processes
jipslash- v.int squeeze up, merge
G'UJ adj clustered, piled up  
SIYRAK ad sparse(ly) Normality
    rare(ly), seldom
YIROQ adj | NX+dan ~ far from X, distant, remote  
  Oy yerdan yiroq.
  The moon is a long way from the Earth.
yiroqlik n remoteness, distance
yiroqlash- v.int | NX+dan ~ move away from X, go far away from X
yiroqlashtir- v.t | NX+ni NY+dan ~ move away X from Y, take away X from Y
UZOQ adj | NX+dan ~ far from X, distant Time
  Shahar bu yerdan uzoqmi?
  Is the city far from here?
    long (time)
  uzoqda in the distance, far away, far off
  NX+dan ~+da bo'l- be far away from X
  U ko'p yillar o'z vatanidan uzoqda bo'ldi.
  He was far from his native land for many years.
  uzoqdagi far, distant
  uzoqdan from a distance
uzoqlik n remoteness, distance
uzoqla- v.int | NX+dan ~ move away from X, go far away from X
uzoqlash- v.int | NX+dan ~ move away from X, go far away from X, retire from X
  Kishi borgan sari bizdan uzoqlashib bordi.
  The man retired more and more from us.
uzoqlashtir- v.t | NX+ni NY+dan ~ move away X from Y
OLIS adj far, distant  
  olisda (very) far away, far off
olisla- v.int | NX+dan ~ go far away from X
MASOFA n | NX bilan NY orasidagi ~ distance between X and Y  
  Samarqand bilan Toshkent orasidagi masofa qancha?
  What is the distance between Tashkent and Samarkand?
       
OLD n front, front part Evolution
  Uyning oldi tomonida gul bor.
  There are flowers in front of the house.
  NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga in front of X, before X, in presence of X
  Kitob uning oldida turibdi.
  The book is lying in front of him.
  Onangizning oldiga boring!
  Go to your mother!
  Uyning oldiga boring!
  Go to the front of the house!
  oldinda in front
  oldinga ahead, forwards
oldingi adj front
OLG'A adv forward(s)  
  Ishlar biroz olg'a ketdi.
  Things have advanced a little.
  Yangi g'alabalar sari, olg'a!
  Forward to new victories!
QOSH n eyebrows Head
  NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga in presence of X, in front of X
HUZUR n presence Identity & Difference
  NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga in presence of X
  Bir soatdan so'ng huzuringizda bo'laman.
  In an hour I shall be in your presence.
ORQA n back, back part Body & Members
Evolution
  Orqangizda nima bor?
  What have you got on your back?
  NX+ning ~+sida/dan/ga behind X
  Eshik orqasidan.
  From behind the door.
  Oy bulut orqasiga yashirindi.
  The moon is hidden behind a cloud.
  ~+da/dan/ga behind / from behind / backward(s)
  Orqangizga qayting!
  Go back!
  orqadagi behind
KET n back, back part Body & Members
  NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga behind X
ORT n back  
  NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga behind X
ortqi adj back
QARSHI adj opposite Identity & Difference
Conflicts
  Qarshi tomon.
  Opposite side.
  qarshima-qarshi opposite each other
  Ular qarshima-qarshi turyaptilar.
  They are standing opposite to each other.
TESKARI ad inside out, upside down Identity & Difference
Conflicts
  teskarisi(ga) inside out
  Bu to'nning teskarisimi?
  Is this coat inside out?
CHAP adj, n left  
  chap tomon+da/dan/ga on the left
  chap qo'l left hand (side)
SO'L adj left Politics
O'NG adj, n right Politics
  o'ng tomon+da/dan/ga on the right
  o'ng qo'l right hand (side)
KO'NDALANG adv across, crosswise  
  post | NX+ga ~ across X
       
UST n top, surface Quantity
Meaning
  U yerning ust qatlamini o'rganadi.
  He is studying the surface of the soil.
  Ustingiz tozalang!
  Brush yourself!
  NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga on (top of) X
  Tomning ustiga chiqdim.
  I climbed to the top of the roof.
    in addition to X
    about X
ustki adj upper, on the top
OST n lower part, bottom  
  NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga under X
  U suv ostidan chiqdi.
  He got out of the water.
  Uning qo'l ostida besh kishi bor.
  There are five people under his direction.
ostki adj lower
  ostin-ustin qil- pile one on top of another  
    turn upside down
UZRA post | NX ~ at X, on X, above X  
TEPA n peak, top Lands
  NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga on the top of X, above X
  tepada upstairs
tepalik n uphill
TAG n bottom, lowest part Importance
  U suvning tagiga tushdi.
  He went down to the bottom of the sea.
  U tog'ning tagida o'tiryapti.
  He is sitting at the foot of the mountain.
    root, basis, substance, essence
  NX+ning ~+ida/dan/ga under X, beneath X
  Kitobning tagidan qog'ozi oling!
  Take the paper from under the book!
BALAND ad high Whole & Parts
Size
Vital Functions
Sound
  Bemorning issig'i baland.
  The patient's temperature is high.
  Bu devorlar baland.
  These walls are high.
  Samolyot juda baland ko'tarildi.
  The plane rose very high.
  Uning baland iqboli bor.
  He is a great success.
PAST adj low Whole & Parts
Value
Size
Generosity
  Bu past uy.
  This is low house.
  Turkistonda bir qancha past tekisliklar bor.
  There are many low-lying plains in Turkestan.
  n bottom
  Yuqoridan pastgacha.
  From top to bottom.
  pastda below; downstairs
  pastdagi bottom, lower, below
pastlik n downhill
pastki adj bottom, lower, below
YUQORI n top, highest part Degree
  Bu tog'ning yuqorisiga chiqing!
  Go to the top of this hill!
  adj high (fig.)
  yuqorida above
  Yuqorida ko'rsatilgan.
  The above-mentioned.
  yuqoridagi above
YUKSAK adj high (l/f) Degree
yuksaklik n height
QUYI n, adj lower; bottom, lowest part Informing
  Bog'ning quyisida.
  At the bottom of the garden.
TUBAN adj low (l/f) Informing
QIRRA n edge, ridge, facet Shapes
    top, peak
  U tog'ning qirrasiga keldi.
  He went to the top of the mountain.
UCH n point, end, extremity Shapes
  Ipning uchini ushlang!
  Hold the end of the thread please!
  Qalamning uchi sindi.
  The point of the pencil has broken.
       
BOSH n head Head
Evolution
Importance
Organizations
Animals
Whole & Parts
    beginning, source
  Bu kitobni bir boshidan o'qing.
  Read this book from the beginning.
  Men daryoning boshiga bordim.
  I went to the source of the river.
OSHA post | NX ~ through X, getting through X  
qarab post | NX+ga ~ in accordance with X Utilization
    towards X, in direction of X
  U menga qarab keldi.
  He came towards me.
SARI post | NX ~ towards X Evolution
  U tog' sari ketdi.
  He went in the direction of the mountain.
    X after X(=time unit)
bo'yicha post | NX ~ throughout X, all over X, all along X Utilization
Evolution
    in accordance with X, in connection with X
oralab adv throughout, all over, all along  
  Men odamlarning o'rtasidan oralab o'tdim.
  I made my way through the crowd.
QADAR post | NX+ga ~ up to X, to X, as far as X Whole & Parts
Evolution
  Bu yerdan u yerga qadar boring!
  Go from here to there!
    until X, till X, up to X
       
SHARQ n east  
sharqiy adj eastern, oriental
G'ARB n west  
g'arbiy adj western, occidental
SHIMOL n north  
shimoliy adj northern
JANUB n south  
janubiy adj southern
  janubi-g'arb south-west  
  janubi-sharq south-east
  shimoli-g'arb north-west
  shimoli-sharq north-east

Time and Duration

VAQT n time Chronology
Opportunity
Necessity
  O'z vaqtini bekorga o'tkazdi.
  He wasted his time.
  o'z vaqtida on time, in time
  Bu ishni o'z vaqtida bitirdim.
  I finished this work on time.
  vaqt+i bor have time
  Vaqtingiz bormi?
  Have you got time?
  vaqt+i yo'q have no time
  har vaqt everytime
  bu/shu/u vaqtda at this/that time
  bir vaqtda bo'ladigan simultaneous
  NX+ga vaqt ket- X take time
vaqtli adj early
    temporary
bevaqt adj not at the right time, premature
vaqtincha adv temporarily
  Bu kitobni sizga vaqtincha beraman.
  I will give you this book temporarily.
BARVAQT adj early
    in advance
CHOG' n time  
  Bug'doylarni o'rish chog'i keldi.
  The time has come to harvest the wheat.
  bu/shu/u chog'da at this/that time
  Men kecha bu yerga xuddi mana shu chog'da kelgan edim.
  I came here yesterday at exactly this time.
  N(gan)X chog'+ida when X
ZAMON n time, moment  
  Uyga bordigim zamon sizga maktub yozaman.
  I will write you as soon as I get home.
  ne zamon when
  U odamni ne zamon ko'rgan edingiz?
  When did you see that man?
  bir zamonlar formerly, at some time
zamonaviy adj contemporary, modern
zamonaviylik n modernity
zamonaviylashtir- v.t modernize
zamondosh n contemporay
DAVR n time, epoch, era  
  Bu bino Timur saltanati davrida qurilgan.
  This building was erected during the reign of Timur.
  Bu davr ozodlik davridir.
  This is an epoch of liberation.
  Yoshligimda yaxshi davr surdim.
  I had a good time in my youth.
davriy adj periodic
ERA n era  
KEZ n time, moment Opportunity
  kezi kelganda some time
PAYT n moment, time (quite short) Opportunity
  bu/shu/u paytda at this/that moment
DAQIQA n minute, (short) moment Time Units
  Bir daqiqa kuting!
  Wait a minute!
DAM n moment, minute  
  U shu damgacha kelmadi.
  So far he has not come.
  bir dam a moment, a minute
  Bir dam kuting!
  Wait a moment.
  dam-badam continually, incessantly
BIRPAS n moment, instant  
  bir pas a moment, a minute
  bir pasdan keyin in a moment, in a short time, shortly
LAHZA bir lahza a moment, a minute  
  bir lahzada bo'ladigan instantaneous
MUDDAT n time, period of time, date, time limit  
  Pasportingizning muddati o'tib ketibdi.
  Your passport is out of date.
  Qaysi muddatda bu ishni bitira olasiz?
  How quickly can you finish this work?
  muddatda on time
  muddat+idan oldin before the set time
  Bu ishni men muddatidan oldin bajardim.
  I completed this work before the set time.
muddatli adj with a period of
  qisqa muddatli short term
  uzoq muddatli long term
muddatsiz adj unlimited
ORA n interspace, middle, midst Position
    interval of time, period of time
  Oradan ikki yil o'tdi.
  Two years have passed since then.
  Oradan ko'p o'tmay, u keldi.
  Not much time passed before he came.
  shu orada at that time
ICH n interior, inside Position
Health
Density
  numX Y ichida for X Y(=time unit), in X Y
  Besh kun ichida.
  For five days.
MOBAYNIDA post | numX Y ~ within (the space of) X Y(=time unit)  
SIKL n cycle  
O'T- v.int pass Horizontal Motion
Results
Learning
Undertaking
Travel
Transfer
Gatherings
    pass (time)
o'tgan adj past, last (unit of time)
o'tkaz- v.t spend, pass (time, holiday)
  Biz ta'tilni dengiz bo'yida o'tkazdik.
  We spent our holidays on the sea.
  v.t | NX+ni NY+dan ~ make X pass through Y
o'tkiz- v.t lead past
  vaqtni VX+ib o'tkaz- while away the time at Xing
  Poyezd kelishini kutib biz vaqtni shaxmat o'ynab o'tkazdik.
  Waiting for the train we whiled away the time at playing chess.
O'TMISH adj, n past (from the past)
  o'tmishda in the past
MUHLAT n time limit, term  
muhlatli adj with a time limit, determined
muhlatsiz adj unlimited
       
HOZIR adj | ~ (bo'l-) be present, be ready Undertaking
  adv now, at present, currently
    just now (in the past)
  U hozir keldi.
  He has just come.
  hozirgina just now (in the past)
hozircha adv temporarily, for the moment
hozirgi adj present, current, contemporary, modern
  hozirgi davr present time, modern time
  hozirgi vaqt present time, modern time
  hozirgi zamon present time, modern time
ENDI adv now, just now  
  Endi keldingizmi?
  Have you only just arrived?
  Endi nima qilamiz?
  What shall we do now?
  Nega endi sen bunday qilding?
  Now why did you have to do that?
  endigina just now, only now
  endilikda at present, currently
HALI adv still; not yet (with neg.) Evolution
    just now (in the past)
  Hali kim bilan so'zlashyotgan edingiz?
  With whom were you talking just now?
BOYA adv recently, just now (in the past)  
  o'shanda then  
  o'shandan beri since then
KEL- v.int come, approach, arrive (here) Horizontal Motion
Evolution
Authority
Will
KELASI adj next (unit of time)
KELAJAK n, adj future
  Uning kelajagi belgili emas.
  His future is uncertain.
  kelajakda in future
KELGUSI adj next (unit of time), future
BO'LAJAK adj future  
ISTIQBOL n prospect, future  
DARROV adv at once, immediately  
  Darrov qaytib kel!
  Come back at once!
DARHOL adv immediately, at once  
  Yaxshi xabarni eshitib darhol o'rindan turib ketdi.
  He rose immediately when he heard the good news.
  tez orada soon  
  tez kunda soon
  Tez kunlar ichida bu ishimizni bitirishimiz kerak.
  We must finish this work in the course of a few days.
YAQIN adj | NX+ga ~ near by X, close to X Whole & Parts
Distance
Social Life
Involvement
  yaqindagi the one nearby
    the next one
  yaqinda soon, shortly (in the future)
  Yaqinda imtihonlar boshlanadi.
  The examinations will soon be starting.
    recently (in the past)
  Bu yerga u yaqinda keldi.
  He came here recently.
  yaqindan beri for a short time (in the past)
  yaqin orada shortly, before long (in the future)
  U yaqin orada keladi.
  He will be coming shortly.
  yaqin vaqt ichida shortly, before long (in the future)
ANCHA n a long time Quantity
  anchadan beri for a long time (in the past)
UZOQ adj | NX+dan ~ long (time) Distance
  uzoq o'tgan zamonda once upon a time, a long time ago
  uzoq vaqtdan beri for a long time
  Sizni uzoq vaqtdan beri kutyapman.
  I've been waiting for you for a long time.
UZAY- v.int lengthen, extend Size
uzaytir- v.t lengthen, extend
QISQA adj short (space and time) Size
Informing
  Qisqa yo'l.
  Short road.
OZ adj few, small (quantity) Quantity
ozmuncha adv a little, a while
       
KALENDAR n calendar  
MILOD n beginning of Christian era  
  miloddan burun B.C.
  miloddan keyin A.D.
ASR n century, age Chronology
  o'rta asrlar middle ages
asriy adj age-old
asrdosh n contemporary
MUCHAL n cycle of 12 years, used to calculate age  
YIL n year Gatherings
  Yil oxirigacha bu yerda turamiz.
  We will stay here until the end of the year.
  yil bo'yi all year long
  yildan yilga from year to year
  Vaziyat yildan-yilga yaxshilamoqda.
  The situation is improving every year.
  har yilgi annual, yearly
  bu yil(+i) this year
  kelasi yil(+i) next year
  o'n yil decade
  o'tgan yil(+i) last year
  yangi yil new year
  Yangi yilingiz qutlug' bo'lsin!
  A happy new year!
yillik n anniversary
  adj | numX ~ X years' long
FASL n season Weather
MAVSUM n season, time Weather
  Paxta terish mavsumi boshlandi.
  The cotton picking season has started.
mavsumiy adj seasonal
BAHOR n spring Weather
bahori adj for spring
bahorgi adj spring
KO'KLAM n early spring Weather
YOZ n summer Weather
yozlik adj for summer
yozgi adj summer
KUZ n autumn Weather
kuzlik adj for autumn
kuzgi adj autumnal
QISH n winter Weather
qishlik adj for winter
qishki adj winter
  qishin-yozin all the year round  
KVARTAL n quarter Urbanism
OY n moon Nature & Cosmos
Money
    month
  bu oy this month
  kelasi oy next month
  Kelasi oyda bu ishimiz bitsa kerak.
  This work of ours will probably be finished next month.
  o'tgan oy last month
  oyma-oy monthly
oylik adj monthly
  n monthly salary
YANVAR n January  
FEVRAL n February  
MART n March  
APREL n April  
MAY n May  
IYUN n June  
IYUL n July  
AVGUST n August  
SENTABR n September  
OKTABR n October  
NOYABR n November  
DEKABR n December  
CHILLA n a period of 40 days (esp. after birth, wedding) Gatherings
  yoz chillasi the 40 warmest days in summer
  qish chillasi the 40 coldest days in winter
CHISLO n day of the month, date  
  n | numX+inchi chislo (NY) (Y(=month)) the Xth
SANA n date, year  
  Bu kitob qaysi sanada yozilgan?
  In what year was this book written?
  NX+ga NY ~+si qo'yil- X(=document) date from Y
  Xatga 9 may sanasi qo'yilgan.
  The letter dates from the 9th of May.
TARIX n history Science
Chronology
    date
  Binoning qurilish tarixi.
  The date of the construction of the building.
tarixli adj | numX+inchi NY ~ (dated) Y(=month) the Xth
HAFTA n week  
  bu hafta this week
  hafta oxiri week-end
  Hafta oxirida dam olaman.
  I will rest at the week-end.
  kelasi hafta next week
  o'tgan hafta last week
haftalik adj weekly
SHANBA n Saturday  
YAKSHANBA n Sunday  
  otdix kuni Sunday  
DUSHANBA n Monday  
SESHANBA n Tuesday  
CHORSHANBA n Wednesday  
PAYSHANBA n Thursday  
JUMA n Friday  
KUN n day Social Life
Nature & Cosmos
Weather
  Qaysi kuni kelasiz?
  What day will you come?
    time, days, life
  Kunimiz yomon emas.
  We don't live too badly.
    sun
  kun bo'yi all day
  Kun bo'yi shaharda bo'ldim.
  I was in town all day.
  kuni bilan all day
  NX kuni on X(=day of the week)
  avvalgi kun the day before yesterday
  birisi kuni the day after tomorrow
  ilgarigi kun the day before yesterday
  bir kuni one day
  har kuni everyday
kunda adv in the day, daily, per day
kundalik adj daily
kunli adj daily
KUNDUZ n day, daytime
  Kunduz kuni keling!
  Come during the day!
  kunduzi during the day
  Kunduzi ishlaymiz, kechasi uxlaymiz.
  We work during the day and sleep at night.
kunduzgi adj daytime
TUN n night  
  O'tgan tun men unikida edim.
  I was with him last night.
  Tuni bilan uxlamadim.
  I didn't sleep the whole night.
  yarim tun midnight
tuna- v.int pass, spend the night
  Siz biznikida tunab qolishingiz mumkin.
  You can spend the night by us.
  U biznikida tunadi.
  He spent the night with us.
tungi adj night
  o'tgan tun last night
TONG n dawn, daybreak  
  tong payti at dawn
  tong ot- day break
  tong otishi at dawn
ERTA ad early Chronology
Time Units
  n morning
  erta bilan in the morning
  Erta bilan keling!
  Come in the morning!
ERTALAB n, adv (in the) morning
ertalabki adj morning, early
AZON n dawn, early morning  
SAHAR n early morning (before dawn)  
  saharda before dawn
  saharlab before dawn
  erta-kech day and night  
  Erta-kech ishlaydi.
  He is working day and night.
  ertadan kechgacha from early morning till late at night  
PESHIN n midday, noon  
  Peshin namozini o'qiyaptilar.
  They are reciting the midday prayers.
  peshindan ilgari (at) forenoon, (in the) morning
  peshindan keyin (in the) afternoon
TUSH n midday, noon  
  Bir soatdan keyin tush bo'ladi.
  In one hour's time it will be midday.
  tushda at noon
  tush vaqti noon
  tushdan keyin (in the) afternoon
tushki adj noon
  tushki payt afternoon
KECH ad late Chronology
  n, adv (in the) evening
  Kech soat sakkizda kelaman.
  I will come in the evening at eight.
kechki adj evening, late
  kechki payt (in the) evening
KECHQURUN n, adv (in the) evening
  Bugun kechqurun kelaman.
  I will come this evening.
  Kecha kechqurundan beri yomg'ir yog'ayotir.
  It has been raining since yesterday evening.
kechqurungi adj evening
OQSHOM n, adv (in the) evening, sunset  
KECHA n night Time Units
  yarim kecha midnight
  U yarim kechada keldi.
  He came at midnight.
kechasi adv at night
  Kechasi keldi.
  He came at night.
  Kechasi qorong'i bo'ldi.
  The night was dark.
kechalik adj night
  kecha-kunduz night and day  
       
  o'tgan kuni the day before yesterday  
KECHA n night Time Units
  n, adv yesterday
  Kecha nima qildingiz?
  What did you do yesterday?
  kecha ertalab yesterday morning
kechasi n, adj last night
ARAFA n eve (of the end of Ramadan or other day)  
BUGUN n, adv today  
  bugun ertalab this morning
  bugun kechqurun this evening
bugungi adj today's
  bu kechasi tonight  
ERTA n morning Chronology
Time Units
    tomorrow
ertaga n, adv tomorrow
  Ertaga erta bilan keling!
  Come tomorrow morning!
  ertaga ertalab tomorrow morning
  ertaga kechasi tomorrow night
ERTASIGA
/ ERTASI
adv the day after tomorrow, the next day
  bugun-erta today or tomorrow  
INDIN n the day after tomorrow  
indinga adv the day after tomorrow
  erta-indin in a day or two  
       
SOAT n hour Appliances
  Bugun besh soat ishladim.
  I worked five hours today.
  Soat necha bo'ldi?
  What's the time?
    clock, watch
  ~ numX it is X o'clock
  Soat ikki bo'ldi.
  It's two o'clock.
  ~ numX+da at X o'clock
  Soat beshda ketaman.
  I will go at five.
  ~ numX+dan numYta o'tdi it is Y past X
  ~ numX+dan numY minut o'tdi it is Y past X
  ~ numX+dan numYta o'tganda at Y past X
  Soat to'qqizdan onbesh minut o'tkanda kelaman.
  I will come at 9.15.
  ~ numX+dan numY minut o'tganda at Y past X
  ~ numYta kam numX it is Y to X
  ~ numY minuti kam numX it is Y to X
  ~ numYta kam numX+da at Y to X
  ~ numY minuti kam numX+da at Y to X
  ~ numX yarim it is half past X
  ~ numX yarimda at half past X
  Soat o'nbir yarimda.
  At half past eleven.
soatli adj hourly
MINUT n minute  
minutli adj (in minutes)
DAQIQA n minute Time
    minute, (short) moment
  Bir daqiqa kuting!
  Wait a minute!
SEKUND n second  
sekundli adj in seconds
SONIYA n second  

Events and Evolution

BO'L- v.int be, come into being, happen Entities & Events
Motion
Ability
Evolution
  Bugun bo'ron qattiq bo'ldi.
  There was a terrible storm today.
  Nima bo'ldi?
  What's the matter?
  U kasal bo'ldi.
  He fell ill.
  v.int | NX+ga ~ happen to X
  Sening do'stingga nima bo'ldi?
  What happened to your friend?
  v.int | NX/AX ~ become X, get X
  NX/AX ~+ib qol- become X, get X
QOL- v.int remain, stay Acceptance & Pardon
Motion
Opportunity
  v.int | VX+ib ~ get X (with changed state, suddenly)
  Chiroq birdan o'chib qoldi.
  The lamp suddenly went out.
  Men charchab qoldim.
  I've got tired.
  O'g'lingiz maktabga kelmay qoldi.
  Your son doesn't come to school.
  Sochim oqorib qoldi.
  My hair has turned white.
qoloq adj backward
KET- v.int go, leave Entities & Events
Motion
Necessity
  v.int | VX+ib ~ get X, start to X (intensive, unforseen)
  Charchab ketdim.
  I have got tired.
  Kutub tura berib, oyoqlarim og'rib ketdi.
  My feet have started to ache from continuous waiting.
  Sochi oqarib ketdi.
  His hair has turned grey.
  v.int | VX+a ~ start to X (intensive)
O'ZGAR- v.int change, alter Identity & Difference
  Sen yaxshi ma'noda juda ham o'zgaribsan.
  You have strongly changed for the better.
  o'zgarish change, transformation, alteration
  o'zgarmas constant, invariable
o'zgart- v.t change, alter
o'zgartir- v.t change, alter
  Sen nima uchun o'z qaroringni o'zgartirding?
  Why have you changed your decision?
  Bu qonunni o'zgartirish kerak.
  This law must be changed.
    replace, substitute
  o'zgartirish change, transformation
AYLAN- v.int | NX+ga ~ turn into X, change into X Motion
Shapes
Tourism
  Ushbu kichkina zavod ikki yil ichida katta kombinatga aylandi.
  Within two years this small plant has changed into a big enterprise.
  Qog'oz kuyib kulga aylanib ketdi.
  The paper burned and turned to ashes.
  v.int | NX+dan NY+ga ~ grow from X to Y
  O'zbekistan qishloq xo'jaligi mamlakatdan sanoatlashgan mamlakatga aylandi.
  Uzbekistan has grown from an agrarian land to an industrial land.
aylantir- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ turn X into Y, transform X into Y
O'RIN
(o'rn+i)
NX+ning o'rn+ini bos- replace X, take the place of X Administration
Housing
Location
Tools & Furnitures
Preservation
Necessity
  NX+ning o'rn+iga o't- replace X
  O'qituvchi o'z bemor kasbdoshining o'rniga o'tdi.
  The teacher replaced his sick colleague.
     
     
ALMASH- v.int alternate, follow one another Money
Exchange
almashtir- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ change X for Y, exchange X(= money, etc.) for Y
  v.t replace, change
  Ivanov navbatchini almashtiradi.
  Ivanov replaces the man on duty.
  Bu ko'ylak kir bo'ldi, men uni almashtirishim kerak.
  This shirt is dirty, I must change it.
AYIRBOSH n exchange Exchange
  NX+ni ayirbosh qil- change X, replace X
  NX+ni NY+ga ayirbosh qil- exchange X for Y
BARQAROR adj stable, constant  
    established, fixed
barqarorlashtir- v.t stabilize
       
ERGASH- v.int | NX+ga ~ follow X Motion with
ORQA n back, back part Body & Members
Position
Motion with
  NX+ning orqa+sidan bor- follow X
     
IZ n track, trace, footprint, spoor Motion with
Processes
  NX+ning ~+idan bor- follow X
  izma-iz one after the other
  ketma-ket one after another  
  Ketma-ket ikki marta xat yozdi.
  U wrote two letters one after the other.
OLDIN adv first, first of all Position
  Oldin keling, so'ngra so'zlashamiz.
  First come and then we will talk.
  N(gani/ish)X+dan (NY) ~ (Y(=time duration)) before X
  Bu ishni qilishdan oldin, ulamolarning fatvosini olish kerak.
  It is necessary to get permission from the ulema before doing this work.
  Bundan oldin.
  Before this.
  bundan NX ~ X(=time duration) ago
  Bundan besh kun oldin bu yerda emas edim.
  I was not here five days ago.
  oldinda previously, earlier
  oldindan in advance, earlier
oldingi adj previous, earlier
  oldingi davrda a long time ago
  oldingi vaqtda a long time ago
  oldingi zamonda a long time ago
ILGARI adv formerly Evolution
  Ilgari biz u bilan do'st edik.
  We were friends formerly.
    forward
  U ilgari ketyapti.
  He is going forward.
  N(gani/ish)X+dan (NY) ~ (Y(=time duration)) before X
  U bayramdan ilgari keldi.
  He came before the holiday.
  adv | bundan NX ~ X(=time duration) ago
  U bundan besh kun ilgari keldi.
  He came five days ago.
  ilgari bol- come before, be in front
ilgarila- v.int progress, go ahead
ilgarigi adj previous, earlier
BURUN adv formerly  
  Burun bunday ishlar yo'q edi.
  Formerly there was no such work.
  adv | N(gani/ish)X+dan (NY) ~ (Y(=time duration)) before X
  adv | bundan NX ~ X(=time duration) ago
  Bundan besh yil burun bu yerga kelgan edim.
  I came here five years ago.
burundan adv first, firstly
burungi adj previous, former, prior
AVVAL adv first, firstly  
  Eng avval shaharga borishim kerak.
  First of all I must go to the city.
  N(gani/ish)X+dan (NY) ~ (Y(=time duration)) before X
  Bu kitobdan avval unisini o'qishim kerak.
  I must read that book before this one.
  bundan NX ~ X(=time duration) ago
  Bundan uch kun avval.
  Three days ago.
avvalo adv first, firstly
avvalgi adj previous, earlier
ILK adj first, initial Chronology
DASTLAB adv first  
dastlabki adj initial, primary
  bir yo'la simultaneously  
KEYIN adv after, afterwards, later on  
  Biroz keyin keling.
  Come a little later.
  Keyin nima dedi?
  What did he say next.
  post | N(gani/ish)X+dan (NY) ~ (Y(=time duration)) after X
  Ikkinchi dunyo urushdan keyin ko'pgina milliy davlatlar yuz berdi.
  Many national governments appeared after the second World War.
  Siz mendan keyin keldingiz.
  You came after me.
    X(=time duration) after
  keyinda following, next, later
  keyindan (somewhat) later on
keyinchalik adv subsequently, afterwards
keyingi adj following, next, later
SO'NG n end, finish Evolution
  post | N(gani/ish)X+dan (NY) ~ X(=time duration) after
  Bundan so'ng bu ishni qilmayman.
  After this I will not do this work.
  Bundan uch kun so'ng.
  Three days later.
    (Y(=time duration)) before X
so'ngsiz adj endless
SO'NGRA post | N(gani/ish)X+dan (NY) ~ X(=time duration) after
  Men bu ishni so'ngra qilaman.
  I will do this work later.
    (Y(=time duration)) after X
NAVBAT n turn Undertaking
  U boshliqning oldiga kirish uchun navbat kutyapti.
  He is waiting his turn to go to the director.
    queue, line
  navbatdagi following, next
BOSH n head Head
Position
Importance
Organizations
Animals
Whole & Parts
Transfer
Media
Occupations
    beginning, source
  Bu kitobni bir boshidan o'qing.
  Read this book from the beginning.
  Men daryoning boshiga bordim.
  I went to the source of the river.
  boshida at first, at the beginning
  boshidan from the start
boshla- v.t | NX+ni NY+dan ~ begin, start X with Y
  Bu ishni boshlang!
  Start work!
  v.t | NX+ni NY bilan ~ begin, start X with Y
  U o'z inshosini qo'shiq so'zlari bilan boshladi.
  He began his composition with the words of a song
  v.int | VX+a ~ start to X
  Biz yoza boshladik.
  We started to write.
  Bog'dagi mevalar pisha boshladi.
  The fruit in the orchard has started to ripe.
  N(gani)X+dan boshlab since X, from X
boshlov n beginning, starting
boshlovchi n beginner
    (TV, radio) host
    guide
boshlan- v.int begin, start
boshlang'ich adj initial, primary
aslan adv originally, at first  
AZALDAN adv all through the ages, always  
kirish- v.int | N(ish)X+ga ~ set about X, get down to X, start Xing Horizontal Motion
Undertaking
  Qizlar tushlikdan so'ng yana ishga kirishdilar.
  After the dinner, the girls got down again to work.
TUSH- v.int go down, descend Transport
Vertical Motion
Fortune
  v.int | NX+ga ~ fall to X, start X
  U ishga tushdi.
  He started to work.
BERI post | N(gani)X+dan ~ since X, from X Distance
  Ikki kundan beri tuman bo'layotir.
  There has been fog for two days.
    for the last X(=time duration)
BUYON post | NX+dan ~ ever since X  
    for the last X(=time duration)
bo'yicha post | NX ~ throughout X, all over X, all along X Utilization
Position
    in accordance with X, in connection with X
  post | N(gani)X ~ ever since X
  U ketgani bo'yicha, qaytib kelmadi.
  He hasn't been back since he left.
bo'ylab post | NX ~ over the whole length/period  
DAVOM n continuation  
  n | NX ~+ida for X(=time duration), in X's time
  Bir necha kun davomida.
  In a few days' time.
  Uni besh yil davomida ko'rmadim.
  I have not seen him for five years.
  davom et-/qil- continue
  O'qishida davom qildi.
  He continued reading.
  U darsga davom qiladi.
  He goes to class.
  NX davom et- last for X(=time duration)
  NX+ni davom ettir- continue X, maintain X
  Biz u bilan munosabatlarni davom ettirishga intilamiz.
  We strive to maintain contact with him.
  Hikoyatingizni davom ettiring.
  Continue your story.
davomli adj prolonged, lengthy
UZLUKSIZ ad continuous(ly), uninterrupted(ly) Processes
MUTTASIL adj continuous, uninterrupted  
tinimsiz adv without respite, continuously, incessantly Vital Functions
  oldi-keti from beginning to end, altogether  
YOT- v.int lie, lie down Housing
Immobility
  VX+ib ~+ib be Xing (progressive)
  O'g'lim Moskvada o'qib yotibdi.
  My son is studying in Moscow.
  Uning kelishini kutib yotibman.
  I am awaiting his arrival.
TUR- v.int stand Immobility
Frequency
Location
Housing
Character
Money
  VX+ib ~+a keep Xing (habitual, repetitive)
  VX+ib ~+ib keep Xing (progressive, momentarily)
  Eshikni qarab turing!
  Watch the door!
  Teatr borib turibsizmi?
  Do you go to the theatre?
YUR- v.int move (forward), go (forward) Motion
Bodily Motion
Frequency
Forces
Motion with
  VX+ib ~ keep Xing, continue to X; usually do X
  Bir necha kungacha boshim og'rib yurdi.
  My head kept aching for several days.
  Bu yerda nima qilib yuribsiz?
  What are you doing here?
  Ish axtarab yuribman.
  I am looking for a job.
KEL- v.int come, approach, arrive (here) Horizontal Motion
Time
Authority
Will
  v.int | VX+ib ~ persisting to X, continuing to X
  Bu idorada bir necha yildan buyon kelaman.
  I have been working in this office for several years.
  U ikki yildan buyon a'lochi bo'lib o'qib keldi.
  For two years he studied as an outstanding student.
BER- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ give X to Y, hand X to Y, serve X to Y Exchange
Interest
  v.int | VX+a ~ / VX+aver- persisting to X, continuing to X
  Bu yerda o'tira ber!
  Remain seated here!
  U menga qaramasdan keta berdi.
  He continued walking away without looking at me.
HALI adv still; not yet (with neg.) Time
  Dars hali tugagani yo'q.
  The lesson has not yet finished.
  Hali vaqt bor.
  There is still time.
    just now (in the past)
  hali ham still
  Hali ham shu yerdamisiz?
  Are you still here?
HAMON adv still, not yet (with neg.)  
  adv | VX+gan ~ as soon as X
HANUZ adv still, not yet (with neg.)  
  hanuzgacha until now, so far
SARI post | NX ~ X after X(=time unit) Position
  Kun sari narxlar pasaymoqda.
  Prices are coming down daily.
  VX+gan+i ~ VY the more X the more Y
  O'tirganim sari uyqum keladi.
  The longer I sit, the more I want to sleep.
  Shaharga yaqinlashganimiz sari odamlar ko'rinadilar.
  The closer we approach the city, the more people come into view.
  borgan sari VX more and more X
  Shamol borgan sari kuchayapti.
  The wind is increasing more and more.
TARAQQIY adj developing, progressing Undertaking
  taraqqiy qil-/et- develop, progress, advance
  taraqqiy qildir-/ettir- (cause to) develop
  Hukumat paxtachilikning yana-da taraqqiy etdirish programmasini tuzdi.
  The Government has set up a programme for the further development of cotton production.
taraqqiyot n development, progress, advancement
  Afrika mamlakatlari taraqqiyot uchun harakat etmoqdalar.
  The african countries are striving for progress.
taraqqiylash- v.int develop
PROGRESS n progress  
BOSQICH n level, degree Degree
    stage, phase
AVJ n climax, high point  
  avj ol- reach its climax
KAMOLOT
/ KAMOL
n maturity, perfection Value
    development, evolution
  Odamning jismoniy kamoloti.
  Man's physical evolution.
EVOLYUTSIYA n evolution  
RIVOJ n development Construction
rivojlan- v.int develop
  Qishloq xo'jaligi yanada rivojlanmoqda.
  Agriculture is developing further.
  rivojlanish development
rivojlantir- v.t develop; foster, promote
ilgarila- v.int progress, go ahead Evolution
ILG'OR adj advanced, leading; outstanding Value
TANAZZUL n regression, decline  
INQIROZ n decline, decay  
  inqirozga uchra- decline, decay
SUSAY- v.int lag behind, decline, diminish, slow down  
  susayish decline, depression, decay
susaytir- v.t weaken
QAYT- v.int decline, fade Horizontal Motion
Will
  Qo'lining shishi qaytdi.
  The swelling on his hand has gone down.
BOR- VX+ib ~ Xing, progressing uninterruptedly Horizontal Motion
Gatherings
  bora-bora gradually
BIRDAN adv suddenly  
  birdaniga suddenly
BEXOS adj sudden  
  bexosdan suddenly, unexpectedly
TO'SATDAN adv suddenly, unexpectedly, abruptly  
  U to'satdan kelib qoldi.
  He suddenly appeared.
DAF'ATAN adv suddenly  
  hash-pash deguncha in a flash, suddenly  
KO'CH- v.int move, migrate Housing
Motion
  (boshqa) NX+ga ~ shift to (another) X, switch to X
TO'XTA- v.int stop Motion
Necessity
  To'xtang, men ham birga boraman.
  Wait, I will go with you.
    wait, stay, stop a while
  Bu yerda to'xtab turing!
  Wait here please!
  to'xtab qol- stop, crash
  v.int | VX+ishdan ~ stop Xing
  U gapirishdan to'xtadi.
  He stopped talking.
to'xtash n stop
  To'xtash yeri.
  Bus stop.
to'xtat- v.t (cause to) stop, halt, interrupt
  Militsioner yuk mashinasini chorrahada to'xtatdi.
  The militiaman stopped the lorry at a cross-road.
  Biz o'z sayohatimizni to'xtatishimiz kerak edi.
  We had to interrupt our journey.
  NX+ni to'xtatib qo'y- (cause to) stop X, interrupt X
to'xtovsiz ad constantly, incessantly; perpetual, non-ending
TIN- v.int stop  
  tinmay uninterruptedly
tinish n stopping place, pause
QADAR post | NX+ga ~ up to X, to X, as far as X Whole & Parts
Position
    until X, till X, up to X
  Shu vaqtga qadar ishini bitirmadi.
  He hadn't finished his work up to that time.
  Soat o'nga qadar ishladim.
  I worked until 10 o'clock.
OXIR n, adj end, finish, conclusion; last, final  
  NX+ning ~+ida at the end of X
  Iyul oxirida ishimiz tamomlanadi.
  Our work will be finished at the end of July.
  U so'zining oxirida bunday dedi.
  At the end of his speech, he spoke thus.
  Yil oxirigacha bu yerda turamiz.
  We will stay here until the end of the year.
  oxiri at last
oxirgi adj last
AXIR adv at last, finally  
  ~, CX! at last, X!, well then, X!, so, X!
TUGA- v.int end, come to an end, be over, be finished Utilization
Results
Learning
  Ish tugadi.
  The work is finished.
    use up, run out, exhaust
  v.int | NX bilan ~ end in X
  Komediya klub sahnasi bilan tugaydi.
  The comedy ends in the scene in a club.
  Do'stlar o'rtasidagi nizo yarashuv bilan tugadi.
  The quarrel between the friends ended in a reconciliation.
tugat- v.t finish, complete, put an end to
  Bu ishni kechgacha tugatish kerak.
  One must put an end to this work before the evening.
  Bu lug'atni tezdan yozib tugatishimiz kerak.
  We must finish compiling this dictionary quickly.
    liquidate, wipe out
    graduate from, finish (school)
TUGAL adj complete
  Ishimizni tugal ravishda bitirdik.
  We finished our work completely.
tugalla- v.t | N(ish)X+ni ~ finish X, complete X
  Olim o'z tadqiqotini tugalladi.
  The scientist has completed his investigation.
  Bu ishni tezdan tugallash kerak.
  This job must be finished quickly.
  v.t | VX+ib ~ finish Xing, complete Xing
  Mening vaqtim yo'q edi va men xatni yozib tugallay olmadim.
  I was pressed for time and couldn't finish my letter.
  v.t use up, finish off
tugallan- v.int get finished
BIT- v.int be finished, be completed Learning
bitir- v.t finish, complete
  VX+ib ~ finish X
  Bu kitobni o'qib bitirdim.
  I finished reading the book.
bitkaz- v.t finish, complete
  Men ishni bitkazdim.
  I finished the work.
TAMOM n end, finish Whole & Parts
Learning
    total, whole
  tamom bo'l- be finished, be completed
  Dars tamom bo'ldi.
  The lesson is over.
  tamom qil- finish, complete
  Men o'z diplom ishimni tamom qildim.
  I have finished the work for my diploma.
tamomiyla adv completely, utterly
batamom adv completely, totally
tamomla- v.t finish, complete
  Men ishni tamomladim.
  I have already finished the work.
tamoman adv completely, totally
BO'L- VX+ib ~ finish X Entities & Events
Change
Motion
Ability
  Bu kitobnib o'qib bo'ldim.
  I have finished reading this book.
  Choyni ichib bo'ldim.
  I have finished drinking tea.
SO'NG n end, finish Evolution
so'nggi adj last, ultimate
XOTIMA n end, conclusion  
  NX+ga ~ ber- end, finish, complete
OYOQ n extremity, end, completion Body & Members
Tools & Furnitures
Shapes
  Bu ishning oyog'iga yetkazish kerak.
  This work must be brought to completion.
       
MARTA n time (occurence of an event/action)  
  Londonga bir marta bordim.
  I have been to London once.
  Yana bir marta.
  Once more.
MAHAL n time (occurence in time)  
GAL n time (occurence in time)  
  bu gal this time
DAF'A n time (occurence in time)  
  bu daf'a this time
SAFAR n time (occurence in time)  
  bu safar this time
BIR adv once, just Groupings
Whole & Parts
Numbers
Organizations
Identity & Difference
  Bir qarang!
  Just have a look!
     
     
qaytar- v.t cause to go back, turn back Horizontal Motion
Exchange
Will
    repeat
QAYTA adv again, anew, afresh
  Bu ishni qayta qilmang!
  Don't do this again!
  Bu maktubni qayta o'qing!
  Read this letter again please!
  qaytadan again
  qayta-qayta over and over again, repeatedly
  U mendan qayta-qayta so'radi.
  He questioned me over and over again.
qaytala- v.t repeat
qaytalan- v.int be repeated, happen again
yangidan adv again, anew, afresh  
yangicha
/ yangichasida
adv anew, in a new way
TAKROR adv again (and again), repeatedly Learning
  Bu so'zimni takror aytaman.
  I will repeat what I said.
  Bu yerga takror keldim.
  I came here again.
  takror-takror repeatedly, over and over
  Unga so'zlaringizni takror-takror tushundirdim.
  I explained to him repeatedly what you said.
takroriy adj repetitive
takrorla- v.t repeat
  v.t | NX+ning ket+idan ~ repeat after X
  Hammangiz mening ketimdan takrorlang!
  All repeat after me!
takrorlan- v.int repeat
YANA adv again Quantity
  Men yana keldim.
  I came again.
    more, another
yanada adv again and again
BOSHQATDAN adv again Identity & Difference
TAG'IN adv again  
SAYIN post | NX ~ every X(=time unit)  
DOIM adv always, continually; constantly, very often  
  U doim ertalab keladi.
  He always come in the morning.
  har doim all the time, always
  har doimgidek as always, as usual
doimo adv always
doimiy adj permanent
HAMISHA adv all the time, always  
  Hamisha kelavermang!
  Don't keep coming all the time!
  hamma vaqt always  
  har vaqt everytime
  tez-tez frequently, often Speed
  tez-tez VX+ib tur- frequently, often
KO'P adj many, plenty, a lot of Quantity
  adv very, very much
    often
  Men shu kishini ko'p uchrataman.
  I often meet that man.
ko'pincha adv mostly, most often
    often
ABAD n eternity  
  to abad for all eternity
abadiy ad eternal(ly), permanent(ly)
  Do'stligimiz abadiydir.
  Our friendship is eternal.
    forever
  Qilgan yaxshiligingiz abadiy esimdan chiqmayajak.
  I will never forget your kindness.
abadiylashtir- v.t perpetuate, immortalize
abadiyat n immortality, eternity
MANGU ad eternal(ly), everlasting  
    forever
mangulik n eternity
UMRBOD adv lifelong, for life, forever  
TUR- v.int stand Immobility
Evolution
Location
Housing
Character
Money
  VX+ib ~+a keep Xing (habitual, repetitive)
  VX+ib ~+ib keep Xing (progressive, momentarily)
     
     
     
YUR- v.int move (forward), go (forward) Motion
Bodily Motion
Evolution
Forces
Motion with
  VX+ib ~ keep Xing, continue to X; usually do X
     
     
     
O'TIR- v.int sit, sit down Transport
Immobility
  v.int | VX+ib ~ continue to X (for some time)
  Bu haqda ko'p gapirib o'tirmayman.
  I will not speak about this any further.
BA'ZAN adv sometimes, occasionally  
  U ba'zan biznikiga kelib turadi.
  He visits us occasionally.
  ba'zi vaqtda sometimes, occasionally  
GOH
/ GOHO
adv sometimes  
  ~ CX, ~ CY sometimes X, sometimes Y
  goh-goh sometimes, occasionally, from time to time
  ora-sira occasionally, from time to time  
  Do'stim ora-sira biznikiga kelib turadi.
  My friend visits us occasionally.
  ahyon-ahyonda occasionally, from time to time  
  o'qtin-o'qtin from time to time  
ALLAQACHON adv already, long ago  
  hech qachon never (with neg.)  
SIRA adv (with neg.) never Necessity
       
SUR'AT n speed, tempo  
TEZ ad quick(ly), fast, speedy Character
Frequency
Intelligence
Transport
  Tez yuring!
  Go quickly!
  tezda quickly
  tezdan in immediate future, urgently
  Tezdan kelaman.
  I will come soon.
  U tezdan idoraga chaqirildi.
  He was called urgently to the office.
  tez bo'l- hurry up
  tez-tez quickly, fast
    frequently, often
tezlik n speed
  tezlik bilan immediately
tezla- v.int quicken, speed up, accelerate
tezlashtir- v.t quicken, speed up, accelerate
tezlat- v.t quicken, speed up, accelerate
tezkor adj quick, deft, efficient, effective
ILDAM adv quickly, rapidly, fast  
ASTA adv slowly, quietly, gradually  
  Asta keling!
  Come slowly!
  asta-asta very slowly
  Asta-asta yura boshladi.
  He started to move off very slowly.
astalik n slowness
SEKIN ad slow(ly), quiet(ly)  
  Poyezd sekin yuryapti.
  The train is going slowly.
  sekin-sekin very slowly, quietly
  Sekin-sekin keling!
  Come quietly!
sekinlik n slowness
sekinla- v.int slow down
sekinlashtir- v.t slow down
sekinlat- v.t slow down
  asta-sekin very quietly, gradually  
  Bemor asta-sekin tuzala boshladi.
  The patient began to improve gradually.
  Vaqt asta-sekin o'tardi.
  The time dragged on.
OHISTA adv slowly, gradually  
tinch ad quiet(ly), peaceful(ly), calm(ly) Character
Peace
  Men tinchman.
  I am calm.
  U tinch tabiatli kishi.
  He is a quiet person.
  Xalqlar tinch yashashni istaydilar.
  The people want to live peacefully.
tinchlik n quietness, calmness
tinchsiz adj restless, not quiet
notinch adj restless, not quiet
JIM ad quiet(ly), still, silent Character
Speach
JIMJIT
/ JIM-JIT
adj very quiet, still, silent
jimjitlik n quietness, stillness, silence
SOKIN adj still, silent  
sokinlik n stillness, silence
SUKUNAT n silence, stillness Speach
  U sukunat ichida.
  He is silent.
sukunatli adj silent, still
JADAL n speed, quickness  
  adj quick, fast, speeded-up
jadallik n speed, quickness
jadalla- v.int speed up, accelerate
SHOSH- v.int hurry, hasten, rush  
  shoshish haste
  shoshib qol- get hurried
  Ishim ko'pligidan shoshib qoldim.
  I hurried, as I had a lot of work to do.
shoshil- v.int hurry, hasten
  v.int | NX+ga ~ hurry to X
  Men amakimning oldiga shoshilyapman.
  I am hurrying to my uncle.
  Bolalar maktabga shoshilyapti.
  The children are hurrying to school.
  v.int | NX+ning ket+idan ~ hurry after X
  Yigitcha otasining ketidan shoshildi.
  The youth hurried after his father.
  shoshilish urgency, emergency
  Shoshilish ravishda.
  Urgently.
  shoshilishda hurriedly, hastily
shoshilinch n, ad urgent(ly)
    hurried(ly); hurry
  shoshilinchda in haste
shoshiltir- v.t hasten, speed up
shoshir- v.t hasten, speed up
shoshtir- v.t press
  Meni ko'p shoshtirmang!
  Don't rush me!
  shoshib-pishib in a hurry  
OSHIQ- v.int hurry  
  pik vaqti rush hour  
       
ERTA ad early Time Units
Time Units
  U idora erta keldi.
  He came to the office early.
  n morning
ertagi adj early, precocious
vaqtli adj early Time
BARVAQT adj early
ILK adj first, initial Evolution
    early
KECH ad late Time Units
  Kech qolmang!
  Don't be late!
  Rais idoraga kech keldi.
  The director came to the office late.
  kech bo'l- be late
  NX+ga kech qol- be late for X
  Darslarga kech qolish mumkin emas.
  It is not allowed to be late for the lessons.
KECHIK- v.int | NX+ga ~ be late for X(=action)
  U darsga uzrli sabab bilan kechikdi.
  He was late for the lesson because of a valid reason.
  v.int | NX+ga ~ be delayed, late, overdue X(=duration)
  Poyezd bir soatga kechikmoqda.
  The train is overdue one hour.
  kechikib VX be late Xing
  Biroz kechikib qoldim.
  I am a little late.
  Darsga kechikib keldim.
  I came late for the lesson.
  kechikish delay
kechiktir- v.t | NY+ga NX+ni ~ delay, postpone X until Y
ko'chir- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ delay, postpone, adjourn X till Y Motion
Transfer
Release
Language
Cunning
ko'chirish- v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~ delay, postpone, adjourn X till Y
  Majlisni dushanba kuniga ko'chirishdi.
  The meeting was adjourned till Monday.
     
CHO'Z- v.t stretch out, draw out Processes
Speach
  v.t | NX+ni (NY+ga) ~ prolong, extend, delay X (for Y)
  Mening komandirovkam muddatini direktor uch kunga cho'zdi.
  The director has extended my business trip for three days.
  Imtihon topshiruvchi javob berishni cho'zmoqda edi.
  The examinee delayed the answer.
cho'zil- v.int drag on, be prolonged, delayed
qoldir- v.t defer, suspend, postpone Motion
  Yaponiyaga uning safarini noma'lum muddatga qoldirdi.
  He postponed his trip to Japan for an undetermined date.
  o'z vaqtida on time, in time  
  orqada qol- be slow  
  Orqada qolgan o'quvchilarga yordam berish kerak.
  The backward pupils must be helped.
  Soatim orqada qolayotir.
  My watch is slow.
  NX+dan oldinda bor- go in advance of X  
  Men hammadan oldinda boraman.
  I'll go in advance of all.
  oldinga yur- be fast
       
YANGI adj new, fresh  
  Bu uy yangi.
  This house is new.
  yap-yangi very new, very fresh
  Bu kitob yap-yangi.
  This book is very new.
yangilik n new thing, novelty
yangila- v.t renew, replace
yangilan- v.int be renewed, be replaced
ESKI adj old, ancient Clothing
  Bu uy eski.
  This house is old.
  Eski zamon bilan hozirgi vaqt orasida farq bor.
  There is a difference between the present time and ancient days.
eskilik n oldness, ancientness
eskir- v.int get old, worn-out, out-of-date
  eskirib qol- have become worn, outdated
eskirt- v.t wear out (clothes)
eskicha adj old-fashioned, out-of-date
  eski-tuski old and shabby, worn-out Housework
  Eski-tuski narsalarni bering!
  Give the old things (to him)!
QADIM n antiquity  
  qadimdan from ancient times
  qadim(gi) zamon ancient times
qadimgi adj ancient
  Bu binolar qadimgi zamonlardan qolgan.
  These buildings have survived from ancient times.
asriy adj age-old Time Units
tengdosh adj | NX bilan ~ the same age as X  
MODA n fashion Finery
  Modalar jurnali.
  Fashion magazin.
  modadagi fashionable, in fashion
  modadan chiqqan out-of-date, old-fashioned
TARIX n history Science
Time Units
  Qadimgi dunyo tarixi.
  Ancient history.
    date
tarixiy adj historic, historical
yilnoma n annals, chronicles Litterature