To make it easier for the student of the Uzbek language to acquire its basic lexicon. To achieve that, lexical items are presented according to their semantic relationships, and their syntactic category and behaviour are indicated as well.
Such a glossary will of course prove useful only in the context of a steady practice of the language, with regular use of other oral or written materials.
- Phonetic features possibly not reflected in current spelling (eg. dialectal distinctions between /o/ and /ö/, /u/ and /ü/, consonant assimilations).
- Etymological origins of the lexical items (Turkish stock, Iranian, Arabic, Chinese, Russian and western languages).
- Antonymy relationships between lexical items.
Lexical items, words and compound expressions are grouped into larger semantic fields. Each semantic field comes with a table, each line of which containing a head-word and lexical items derived from it. The tables are made out of 3 columns. The first column contains the head-word and its derived lexical items, the second column their syntactic conditions of use, and the third column their meaning expressed in English. In the html pages, links toward other acceptances of the word or its derivations are given on the right side of the table.
Examples have also been given for some important items, one or more sentence in Uzbek and then its translation in English.
The lexical items which have been selected are mainly words, root words or derived words, but may also be compound expressions as well as some of the most used collocations.
|TUG'-||v.t||give birth to, bear (children)||Gatherings
|Bu ayol unga uchta bolani tug'ib berdi.|
|That woman has borne him three children.|
|Bu sig'ir tug'yapti.|
|This cox is giving birth.|
|To give birth to a child.|
|tug'ma||adj||innate, hereditary, inborn|
|Uning kasali tug'madir.|
|His illness is hereditary.|
TUG’- is a transitive verb, and is also the
word root from which two other words are
derived by lexical suffixation, tug’il- and
tug’ilish is not a proper lexical item, but is a nominal deverbative derived from the verb tug’il-, and to which corresponds in English a word as such (birth). Very few of this last kind of derivations are included in the glossary.
tug’ilgan kuni is a compound expression, frequently used, which corresponds also to a single word in English.
Lexical items derived from a given head-word are grouped together in a single line in the table, as far as they belong to the same semantic field.
The most basic or common words are marked in bold face (e.g. tug'il-).
Examples when being given, are following the description of the lexical item meaning by meaning.
Several semantic fields (or domains) have been distinguished, each of them making up a table. These semantic domains may be themselves grouped into fields at a superior level, up to that of the HTML page.
The divisions and subdivisions defining the semantic domains are following the general lines adopted in current thesaurus.
A lexical item may very often pertain to only one semantic domain. For instance, BULBUL, nightingale, appears in only one semantic domain, namely ‘Animals’. But quite frequently also, a given lexical item will pertain to several distinct semantic domains. An example is SABZI, carrot, which appears in the two following semantic domains, ‘Plants’ and ‘Food’. Rather than selecting arbitrarily the unique domain where to place such a lexical item, both semantic domains are kept for the item.
A given lexical item may have several correlated yet distinct meanings, which can pertain to different semantic domains. For instance, YUZ has as a first meaning, (human) face, belonging to the semantic domain ‘Body’, and as a derived meaning, surface, face, belonging to the domain ‘Shape’. Cross-references between different occurrences of a same lexical item are implemented by hypertext links.
Within a given semantic domain, items are grouped as much as possible according to their semantic proximity. These semantic domains are relatively large groupings, which may be in turn divided into several sub-domains (realms). These divisions are materialized by empty lines in the table.
A given word may appear in two different realms within a same large semantic domain. For instance, KECHA has two distinct meanings, night and yesterday, both in the domain ‘Time’, appearing then in two distinct domains. Links are cross-referencing these two meanings.
It must be clear that any grouping and sorting according to semantic criteria is more or less arbitrary.
The basic vocabulary has been selected, with a distinction between two levels, items or meanings of an item marked in bold face being the most basic or common.
Without any frequency list, such a selection is highly subjective.
A common meaning of an item is marked in bold face only in the table corresponding to its semantic domain. When such a meaning appears in an other semantic domain, it is not marked so.
The first column contains Uzbek head-words with words derived from when selected. A head-word appears at the beginning of the cell, and if a root word, written in capital letters. A head-word may itself derives from a head-word appearing elsewhere in the glossary.
Derived words follow, written in lower case.
Only words appear in first column. Relevant grammatical derivations, expressions and collocations appear in second column, these being more or less specific uses of the word in first column. The basic criterion for determining what is a word is simply its spelling, a word being written in one piece.
Derived and reduplicate terms (e.g. qarama-qarshi, opposite) appear in the same line as the head-word, but in second column, more for space reasons than anything else. They are written in lower case.
Same handling for compound-words, derived from two or more root words(e.g. ichki-tashki, inside and outside), written in second column and in lower case. They appear in a separate line.
In Turkic languages, lexical derivation is made by means of suffixation, and there are also cases of prefixation (use of Persian prefixes). These two types of affixation are handled in the same way and written in lower case. Words from Arabic are also part of the Uzbek vocabulary, some of them derived from a same Arabic root, by prefixation, suffixation or infixation, these affixes being not productive as such in Uzbek. For some of these words, the semantic proximity between them is not strong enough for them to be grouped in the same line (e.g. KITOB, book and MAKTAB, school), but for others such a grouping is made (e.g. MASHHUR, famous and SHUHRAT, fame). These two forms being quite different, they are both written in capital letters in the same line. The same is done with words from western origin (e.g. EKONOMIK, EKONOMIST).
The most common derived word from a given head-word have been selected. For the verbs in particular, passive/reflexive and causative derived verbs have been most often selected, excepted when these did not bring anything by themselves. Reciprocal/cooperative verbs have almost never been selected, excepted when their meaning had something more with respect to the basic reciprocal/cooperative meaning brought by the corresponding suffix.
Different forms of a same word are written on two distinct lines, separated by a /. For instance: PESHANA / PESHONA.
Irregular possessive suffixation are also mentioned on two distinct lines. For instance BURUN (burn+i) or ASHYO (ashyo+i).
The second column contains basically a description of how words listed in first column are used in the language.
1) The word’s grammatical category (in Uzbek) is first mentioned:
|ad||adjective or adverb|
2) When the word may function as the head of a syntactic unit (clause, noun phrase…) with one or several dependant arguments, the arguments’ marking is mentioned. This is more often the case for verbs (with subject, direct object, indirect object, etc.), but may be also the case of some adjectives or nouns. Distinctions between core and peripheral arguments are not made.
The subject of a verb is generally not mentioned, as well as the direct object of a transitive verb when it is basically its only argument.
Compounds verbs formed with qil- are supposed transitive if no specific argument is specified. Those formed with bo'l- are supposed intransitive.
An argument appears in the following form:
nature of the argument + reference of the
argument + case.
For instance NX+dan references a nominal phrase referenced as X in the English translation (column 3), in the ablative case.
Arguments are referenced as X, Y, Z, beginning with core arguments.
Natures of arguments are:
|+ni||direct object / accusative|
A noun may bear a pronominal suffix. This is noted using its value in the 3rd singular person:
(+si if the noun ends with a vowel)
The pronominal suffix may combine with casual suffixes: +ida, +iga, etc.
In order to save space, the word is replaced by ‘~’, and when marking of the arguments occurs on the same line that the grammatical category these are separated by ’|’.
|BER-||v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~||give X to Y, grant X to Y|
|AYLAN-||v.int | NX+ga ~||turn into X, change into X|
|aylantir-||v.t | NX+ni NY+ga ~||turn X into Y, transform X into Y|
|n||place to sit, seat, place to sleep|
|NX+ning o'rn+ini bos-||replace X, take the place of X|
Some additional considerations:
The direct object is in Uzbek as in the other Turkic languages marked differently according to whether it is specific/definite or not. In the first case, it bears the accusative case suffix, and in the second one, does not bear casual marking, and must immediately precede the verb. The notation NX+ni is systematically used for marking the direct object, instead of NX(+ni), more correct but taking slightly more space.
In the same way, nominal phrases with a noun dependant does not always use the genitive case, but the notation NX+ning is systematically used, instead of NX(+ning).
Nominal phrases are headed by a noun, and
this can be also a nominal deverbative (or
verb noun). In some cases, reference might
be made to the deverbative and its type:
N(ish)X notes a nominal phrase which can also be a verbal noun in -ish, the notation VX+ish is then used.
N(gani)X notes a nominal phrase which can also be a verbal noun deriving from a past participle followed by a pronominal suffix.
The notation of these possibilities is not systematic. NX without more precision may very well refer also to a nominal phrase headed by a verb noun.
|XOHLA-||v.t | N(ish)X+ni ~||want X,wish X, desire X|
|VX+ishni ~||know how to X|
|VX+ganini ~||know that X|
3) Compound expressions
a) For some lexical items derivations obtained through pure grammatical devices may be listed if presenting some interest for that glossary. This has been kept restricted as much as possible. Example as following:
|bilmay / bilmasdan||unknowingly|
|bilar-bilmas||without being sure, hastily|
b) Many compound verbs are formed from nouns compound with bo’l- (intransitive verbs) or qil- (et-) (transitive verbs). Such verbs appear also in second column, even if one should notice that very often such compound verbs with qil- are synonymous with the verbs derived from the noun through suffixation -la, which appear in first column.
c) Some expressions using verbal auxiliaries are used commonly enough to appear also in that glossary, even if such expressions are strictly speaking not part of the lexicon.
|KO'R-||v.t | N(gani)X+ni ~||see X|
|ko'rib tur-||observe, watch|
d) Some other expressions, closely related to a given lexical item, may figure under its heading.
|NX+ga ~ ber-||torture X|
4) As seen previously, the second column may also contain reduplicated derived terms (intensive), as well as compound words from two different roots. They are written in lower case.
The third column contains the meaning(s) of lexical items and related expressions, as rendered by translation(s) in English.
These translations may contain references to arguments of the syntactic core whose the lexical item is the nucleus. Arguments referenced are those mentioned in second column (X, Y, Z). It may happen that for some verbs an argument not subject in Uzbek and as such referenced in second column is the subject of the English translation. In this case, that argument appears between brackets in the translation, with the verb in the infinitive form.
|GUMON||n||suspicion, doubt (about people)|
|NY+dan NX+ning ~+i bor||(X) be suspicious of Y|
|NX+dan gumon qil-||suspect X, doubt X|
In the translation some additional elements may help interpreting the translation, or may precise the nature of a given argument. These appear within brackets. When those elements precise the nature of an X, Y or Z argument their contents begin with ‘=’.
|l/f||literal and figurative (meaning)|
In some cases, distinct meanings of a same lexical item, rather than to appear in distinct lines will be on a same line, separated by ‘;’.
The fourth (invisible) column contains links to other references to the lexical item in other parts of the glossary.
Examples have been extracted from both N. Waterson's Uzbek-English dictionary and V. Fedorov and G. Aliev's multilingual handbook of Uzbek vocabulary. Many of these examples are quite outdated, referring to Soviet realities. Examples are also lacking for some very common words. This should be completed later on.
Uzbek-English dictionary: Natalie Waterson,
Oxford University Press, 1980.
O'zbek tilining izohli lug'at: Z.M. Mairufov, Moskva 'rus tili' nashriyoti, 1981
O'zbekcha-ruscha lug'at: S. Akobirova, V. Mixailova, Toshkent, 1988
Uzbekskiy yazik dlya vzroclix: N.A Kissen, Sh.U. Raxmatullayev, Toshkent o'qituvchi, 1989
Fransuzcha-ruscha-o'zbekcha lug'at: M.X. Qorayeva, Toshkent o'qituvchi, 1991
Uzbek-English, English-Uzbek dictionary: Kamran M. Khakimov, Hippocrene books, 1994
Guide parlé français-ouzbek-russe: Toshkent o'qituvchi, 1994
Colloquial Uzbek: Kurtulush Öztopçu, Audio-forum, 1994
Modern literary Uzbek: Khayrulla Ismatulla, Indiana University, 1995
English-Uzbek-Russian reference book: LM.T Triskulov et al, Toshkent o'qituvchi, 1995
Dictionary of the Turkic languages: Kurtulush Öztopçu et al, London Routledge, 1996
Uzbek to English Dictionary: Karl Krippes, Dunwoody Press, 1996
O'zbek-Rus-Ingliz-Nemis tillarida so'z boshqaruviga doir lug'at-ma'lumotnoma: V.A. Fedorov, G'.A. Aliev, Toshkent o'qituvchi, 1997
Central Asia phrasebook: J. Rudelson, J. Kakharov et al, Lonely Planet Publications, 1998
O’zbek tili, chet elliklar uchun amaliy kurs: Yu. Azizxonova, R. Tolipova, Toshkent, 1999
Zangari Kema Uzbek-English dictionary: W. Dirks, http://www.geocities.com/zangari_kema/izlatop.html
Dictionnaire Ouzbek-Français: B. Balci, Kh. Ibragimov, U. Mansurov, J. Uhres, l'Asiathèque, 2001
Parlons Ouzbek: Saodat Doniyorova, l'Harmattan, 2001
Hozirgi o'zbek tili faol so'zlarning izohli lug'ati: A. Hojiyev et al, Sharq nashriyot-matbaa aksiyadorlik kompaniyasi, Toshkent, 2001
Teachionary Uzbek Word Sets, http://cassandra.sprex.com/teachionary/Uzbek_all.htm
Uzbek dictionary & phrasebook: N. Awde, W. Dirks, U. Hikmatullaeva, Hippocrene books, 2002
Uzbek-English dictionary (latin): A. Paiziev, translate uz, http://www.nuu.uz/weblugat
Uzbekistan Online Forum, http://www.forum.uz, tillar sahifasi
Pouvoir, don et réseaux en Ouzbekistan post-soviétique: Boris-Mathieu Pétric, PUF, 2002